AmeriCeltic promotes Discussion of Topical Issues of Celtic Interest.
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From time to time as we research Celtic matters we gain insights into contemporary issues, or see applications of lessons our forebears endured which seem forgotten now, yet needed. Our editorials reflect those insights and observations. We occasionally have contributors with important comments. We also have readers interested in re-reading our and our contributors comments or passing them on. So, we decided to dedicate a webpage just to our editorials separate from our “past newsletters,” for those who consider our Commentry worth a repeat read or a to link or share to someone else.
Table of Contents
2018-11-09 Freedom of the Press and Literacy by Cecilia Fábos-Becker
2018-11-02 Blasphemy Laws by Cecilia Fábos-Becker
2018-09-27 Editorial: Hallowe’en Plans for Daughters by Cecilia Fábos-Becker
2018-10-19 Editorial: Brexit Update by Cecilia Fábos-Becker
2018-06-02 Essay: Peace, Prosperity and Celtic Referendums by Tony Becker and Cecilia Fábos-Becker
2018-07-18 Remarks of Dan Mulhall, Ambassador of Ireland to USA
2018-05-10 Editorial: Virtues of Celtic Culture by Cecilia Fábos-Becker
2018-05-07 Remarks: The Good Friday Agreement 20th Anniversary by George Mitchell
2018-01-05 Brexit, The Border Deal, and the DUP by Cecilia Fábos-Becker and Tony Becker
2017-11-10 Editorial: Ireland’s Future by Cecilia Fábos-Becker
2017-11-03 Remarks of Dr. Leo Varadkar by Tony Becker
2017-10-16 Remarks of new UK Consul-General, Andrew Whittaker and Discussion by Tony Becker and Cecilia Fábos-Becker
2017-10-06 Pitfalls for Members of Facebook Groups Cecilia Fábos-Becker
2017-05-19 Editorial: Shopping at Celtic Festivals by Cecilia Fábos-Becker
2017-04-17 Brexit Progress and Movements by Cecilia Fábos-Becker and Tony Becker
2017-03-31 Editorial: Celtic American Heritage and Collaboration by Cecilia Fábos-Becker
2016-12-02 Editorial: Celtic and U.S. Rebellions by Celia Fabos-Becker and Tony Becker
2016-07-15 Stay Positive and Focus on Your Circle by Donagh Mc Keown
2016-06-24 Message from Consul General of Ireland Philip Grant
2016-06-24 Editorial: The Future Possibilities for Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland
2016-06-17 Editorial: Antecedents of the American Revolution by Tony Becker and Cecilia Fábos-Becker
2016-06-17 Women’s Civil Rights in Celtic Societies by Cecilia Fábos-Becker
Philosopher and Pupil
Editorial: Freedom of the Press and Literacy
Ireland and Britain’s Celtic Legacy
by Cecilia Fábos-Becker 2018-11-08
The AmeriCeltic newsletter publishes information about Celtic heritage, culture and events, including current events, under the protections of the US Constitution’s guaranttee of Freedom of the Press. After the past few US elections, and increasingly politicized news coverage of nearly everything, it might be useful to review who established Freedom of the Press and why. It is usually defined as the freedom to write and publish news and criticisms without interference and restrictions by government or religion, (See ‘Freedom of the Press‘). The first modern instances of freedom of the press begin in the British Isles, in England, when Parliament got rid of the government’s right to license newspapers and other print media that might be critical of the government in 1695. But, that is not the whole of the history.
Freedom of the press began to be important during the beginning of the Enlightenment period, (1685-1815), when scientific methodology and rules of evidence, particularly for courts, and for medicine, began to be formalized, and when literacy grew under the encouragement of the Scottish Presbyterian church, to help people become more economically self-sufficient and less dependent upon the charity of churches and communities.
The Scottish Stuart kings, particularly the Catholic kings, were at odds with these ideas. The Scottish Stuart kings were absolutists who wanted the most political–and economic–power, yet no responsibility when their decisions failed to improve the well being of the nation. They wanted to combine church and state–and be in charge of both–and were using such things as star chambers with secret trials to punish critics. In the star chambers’ trials, the accused often had no idea who his or her accuser was. There were few or no witnesses allowed, particularly for the defendants, and there was little or no evidence presented, but severe punishments, even death could be the result. People could just disappear as a result of these trials, and families not know what happened for weeks, months or years. The Stuarts were not the first to be this way, but they hardened the line at a time when literacy was increasing, while the judicial system, at least at the lower levels, was relying more on facts, evidence and witnesses who themselves could be examined.
The Christian Church, the other great dictator of behavior, was also changing. There was no longer just one Christian Church, though the king and Parliament were still trying to make that so. The Presbyterian church was run not by bishops appointed by kings, but by elders elected by church members in the parishes, and both the people voting and the elders could be, and were, women as well as men. All the churches also had an economic responsibility to the parishes to help make them more self-sufficient and help take care of the needy at the local level. The churches found that they were better able to take care of real needs, if the community as a whole was wealthier. Increased literacy among Presbyterians was definitely increasing the wealth, power, and influence of the Presbyterian Church’s membership and its communities. Soon other churches, particularly the Church of England, the state church under the king and parliament, were encouraging greater literacy, if not self-government in the church. It was a natural step in logic to think if ordinary people could run local church communities successfully, they could run larger areas, even a nation, and that the king, as a person, was no better in making decisions than anyone else.
During this same period, it became understood that to make good decisions, you needed facts, truth, and reliable witnesses. People needed to learn the difference between belief and prejudice, and knowledge, based on real events, real experiences, real facts.
Brehons inscribing Brehon Law
But this was not new either. The Scots and Irish already had a long history of believing that men were more or less equal. Kings in Scotland were routinely deposed, often violently, by clans led by other men who thought they were better than the preceding king. The clan was an extended family by blood, and in the earliest times of clans, marriage. Anyone within the Clan, could become clan chief by merit in war and in peacetime wisdom in making decisions that helped a community prosper. If chiefs failed, they were, of course, deposed, usually by murder, sometimes by the entire region’s assent. They hadn’t yet realized you could, or should, be able to just vote them out of office and exile them if they didn’t accept the vote. Neither the chieftainship nor kingship in Celtic society automatically went to the oldest son of a oldest son. Even though, to avoid bloody civil wars within either clans or a nation, a degree of primogeniture was adopted in both clan leadership and kingship, it was still possible for the oldest male relative or someone appointed by parliament to be a regent and hold all the actual power of a king deemed too young to rule, or in the case of the clans, to be ‘tutor’ to the clan chief or head of a clan house and hold and exercise the actual power. This strength of clans and especially their belief in their equality to royal families was unusual in Europe.
The Enlightenment, was a period of resurrection and extension of these earlier feelings of equality and the desire to establish a fair system of justice for everyone, regardless of social status or wealth. The secular Enlightenment was enhanced and extended through the changes and greater egalitarianism in religion, long used to bolster autocratic political power. The success of Enlightenment in bringing about political and economic development and greater opportunities for everyone, depended upon literacy, and education: for the vast majority of people being able to read, and think, to analyze events, people and what was being presented as facts and evidence.
In fact, in the early 18th century, one of the penal laws that angered the Irish most, was the prohibition against educating Catholic Irish as well as Presbyterian Scots-Irish for some decades. The Presbyterians were luckier in that, being NOT CATHOLIC, they could educate themselves. However, they could not attend universities or obtain professional degrees for a few decades. Unfortunately for Catholics, many more decades would pass before they were allowed the same rights. When both came to North America, they made education happen for everyone interested in learning to read, write, do math, learn science, regardless of religion–and the colonial governments went along with it. Even in the frontier communities in North America, families were banding together and hiring school teachers to not only teach the children of the wealthy in a church or local meeting hall, but the poor as well, lest the poor increase beyond the resources of the community.
300 years ago, education was seen as a means of eliminating poverty, and even the poor shared that belief. By the time of the Revolution, there were 24 newspapers in the 13 colonies that were read and shared even on the remote frontiers. The British courts had actually already upheld freedom of the press to report on government wrongdoing–and (gasp!) criticize Crown-appointed colonial governors as well as the elected early legislatures. By the late 18th century, education–particularly literacy, the skills of thinking, analyzing and acting rationally, using logic, and more, were all very important to the mostly Scots-Irish, Scots and Irish, founders of the United States of America.
The press had an obligation, though, also for this precious freedom. It was not free from lawsuits for libel or helping to spread in print, verbal slander, especially if it caused harm or ruin. To enjoy its freedom and respect, the press was expected to faithfully report major events as they occurred in the colonies, London (the central part of government for the entire UK–and its colonies), and in local communities. Early on, the press was expected to adhere to the developing scientific methods and processes of examination of what was claimed to have happened, and report both sides of a dispute. Very early, it was expected to report who did what, when, where, why and how. News was major or unusual ‘NEW’ events; it was mostly happenings or doings, allegedly verifiable. Editorials/opinion letters or commentaries, and Gossip existed, and were recognized as separate from news. There were Gossip columnists for gossip and speculation, including political gossip columnists and Satirists. There were social gossip columnists as well. Between them they could report the he-said/she-said whether it was in government or society for salacious entertainment, but it once was largely separate from the news, and seen as entertainment. Today, most ‘news’ is now a mash-up of gossip/speculation, editorials and commentaries and maybe buried in all of that, are a few real facts of real events.
Today too many Americans, sometimes even those of Scots, Scots-Irish and Irish descent, fail in differentiating facts, evidence and knowledge from belief and prejudice, even bigotry – reality and logic from fantasy and wishes. This even includes members of the press; some of them have become little more than modern versions of the gossip columnists of old. Too few people realize that a real democracy cannot exist if government is run by unaccountable religions or individual tyrants and that, to expose the realities of either, requires a free press that reports real news, and keeps it separate from gossip and speculation. America is in danger of losing a very big part of its cultural heritage, its Celtic heritage, when it turns it back on literacy, and critical thinking and freedom of the press–a real press. Our Celtic and English ancestors fought, bled, were sometimes exiled, and died for freedom, including the right to vote, the right for anyone to hold government power, and the freedom of the press with its rights to speak and write the truth and disseminate it. Many Celtic descended individuals, as early members of that press, also risked life and limb to publish the truth, of actual events, actual active threats,–even when it didn’t make Parliament, the king, a colonial governor or colonial legislature look as good as he or they wanted.
Don’t forget, or turn your back on, this part of your heritage and history: your nation depends on this. READ, THINK, learn to do both if you don’t know how to do them, already. Learn the difference between knowledge and belief, fact and fiction. If you are fed up with news channels that offer more speculation, gossip and commercials than real news, COMPLAIN to the owners and boycott those channels–and tell them you will boycott them and spread the word to others to add to the boycott. Go watch BBC World News, and use your cell phones and computer with internet connections to read the major reputable printed press in the U.S. and international print press. Learn who is reputable and thoughtful, and who is not, in the press and shun the political press, such as Politico (that very name says it all) and Breitbart. What would your ancestors think of you if after their working and dying for more than 2000 years for the nearly 400 years of hard won freedoms you have enjoyed, and obtaining the right to 12 and more years of free education, you turned a democratic, literate republic back into a medieval tyranny, and economic and scientific backwater.
Ireland’s Blasphemy Law Repeal
Editorial: Implications of Blasphemy Law Repeals
by Cecilia L. Fabos-Becker 2018-11-01
(from Katherine Graham Harrison, Irish Observer, and analysis by The Guardian, and BBC)
“Campaigners in Ireland celebrated an end of the ‘medieval’ ban on blasphemy, on Saturday (October 27, 2018), after voters overwhelmingly backed removing the offense from the Constitution in a referendum.”
“The referendum saw a 64.85% vote ‘yes’ to remove the prohibition on blasphemy, with 35.15% in favour of retaining it…”
“Three years ago Irish police investigated comments made by comedian Stephen Fry on TV (on complaints of blasphemy), when he described God as ‘capricious, mean-minded and an utter maniac.’ They ultimately dropped the case, deciding that not enough people had been outraged.”
The articles noted that the 2009 Defamation Law was still in effect, despite the referendum, but that legislation was already being drafted to honor the referendum vote and was expected to be passed shortly.
Ireland’s Blasphemy Repeal Referendum was approved in the same election that saw President Michael Higgins re-elected, with voter turnout, of 43.79%, relatively low for Ireland. This vote was still seen as “the latest reflection of seismic social and political changes in Ireland“. BBC commentators, felt that this change may help to make reunification of the island more possible.
Also during this past week, the British Prime Minister, Theresa May, claimed the agreement on Brexit was “95% complete except for the sticking point of the Irish border”. Also, a poll of Brexit ‘Leave’ voters was reported to show that Leave voters were ‘not concerned about northern Ireland, and had not considered northern Ireland at all in their vote and thought Northern Ireland irrelevant to British needs’. Several BBC pundits observed that recent comments within Theresa May’s Conservative party suggest it may be contemplating, “letting the voters of Northern Ireland decide where it wants to put its own border“. In some parts of the UK, and Theresa May’s government, this could be considered blasphemy as well.
Meanwhile, on the other side of the world in Pakistan, (formerly part of British empire and commonwealth), the Supreme Court of Pakistan acquitted a Christian mother of four of blasphemy after she’d served 9 years in prison in mostly solitary confinement on death row. The Supreme Court found no evidence for the crime, and stated that the complaint filed by her male village Muslim cleric, who was not present at the alleged incident, was based on hearsay. The the lady had an argument with two female Muslim neighbors who had refused her offer to share a drink of water from the same cup, on the basis of her religion, and her neighbors then went to complain to the cleric that she had blasphemed their God in the argument.
Blasphemy is still a capital offense in that country, and this acquittal immediately led to angry protests of thousands of Muslim clerics and their nearly entirely male hordes of their supporters in the streets of Karachi, Islamabad and Lahore, marching with clenched fists and demanding that this female Christian infidel be hung, despite the Court’s ruling.
BBC World News had interviewed a female Pakistani journalist about the case and asked the question, “How many cases of blasphemy are there really? Is it abused to repress or drive away others?” The female Pakistani journalist answered that, although there are some cases of what really is considered blasphemy, nearly all are poorly tried with little evidence and most complaints are instances in which the law is being abused to force others to extort and steal from someone else, or to drive unwanted persons out of the community, such as Christians.
Historians often observe that Laws with capital penalties often result in trials that rely mostly on religious claims and little real evidence. Such accusations, are often abused to oppress or steal from ‘others’. As a historian, I know the same was true of most witchcraft accusations in Europe and the U.S. – they were mainly used to extort and steal. The most famous U.S. case, of course, was the Salem witch trials of 1692-3 in which most of the accused had the more desirable lands of the Salem colony, many of which were then acquired by the accusing families, (as documented), since the lands of a convicted witch were by law and custom forfeit.
We applaud the action take by the Irish, and only wish the same freedom from oppression for the rest of the planet.
Wonder Woman Costume
Editorial: Hallowe’en Plans for Daughters
Skip the Bodice and channel Boudicca
By Cecilia Fábos-Becker
Hallowe’en is just around the corner and from now until October 31st, there will be costume purchases and party plans. In the wake the #metoo movement and these past week’s of highly public national events and discussions, I’d like to offer a few suggestions to parents with daughters.
‘Damseling’ as per Mark Judge’s interview, is all too real. Lets please skip most of the princess gowns. Too many girls over recent decades are finding out that, like the good-looking ‘Prince Charming’ of Shrek animated films, good looking boys are often a lot less than charming in character. If you must go for the ‘princess look,’ try Fiona–Shrek’s formidable wife, or Belle in ‘Beauty and the Beast,’ who was also pretty resourceful and didn’t need to rely on someone to rescue her.
How about if you suggest to your precious little daughter, a Wonderwoman costume, or any female super-hero of the Marvel comics series.
Otherwise, try ‘the smartest witch of her generation,’ Hermione Granger, from Harry Potter, whose classroom robe could also be used for ‘Female Supreme Court Justice.’ Just lose the bosom-enhancers please. There are too many male boobs out there who notice nothing else–regardless of age, both ways.
Now for you teenage daughters, you’ve heard that if you are drinking alcohol, you can expect to have NO credibility and a lifetime of ruin and PTSD. It is a fact that police officers, most district attorney’s and staff, particularly prosecutors, most of the judges, and one half of most juries, etc. are MALE.
It is a fact that once a girl is damaged, it is for life. Unless a boy is molested when young, most have little understanding of what a molested female experiences. Worse, boys who commit assaults as boys, have their records sealed at age 18, or even later if they go to college, as most colleges do not involve the police in most incidents of sexual assault.
Tell your daughters if they even THINK a party has drugs or alcohol at it, when you all know that the state law for drinking alcohol says it’s only legal for persons over 21, to get out, and call you–if they didn’t get there by their own cars. Teach them how to get out gracefully and quietly if they can, and otherwise, to not be afraid to make a loud scene while they escape, so everyone hears and remembers it. Teach them to call the cops if it really gets bad, and run, if they can’t reach you soon enough. BE AVAILABLE for them and ready to pick them up. Don’t be off partying on your own with your cell phone off. Children of any age still need the support and love of their parents. They need to know parents are really there for them when they NEED those parents.
Parties are dangerous, because all it takes is one, or a very few persons, to really ruin a fun afternoon or evening by introducing or ‘slipping in’ alcohol or drugs to young brains that are still changing–a lot–at a time when sex hormones are at their highest for males. Teach your daughters that alcohol and teenage, even early 20’s, males, is a bad, dangerous combination–a lot like throwing gasoline on a fire and too many people get burned by this combination. Teach them that they must take some responsibility for themselves and avoid this situation, and that you will always have their backs in helping them avoid and getting away from this kind of situation. Parents, you need to know who your children are with at parties and if the parents are really home–ask the parents of the friend who is hosting the party if they will be there and what their policies are on alcohol and drugs. If they are casual, learn to tell your daughters, ‘there will be other parties, you are not going to this one. It’s because I care and love you and am trying to protect you.’ Better yet, concerned parents, host a party yourself. Yes, you will get push back. ‘Don’t you trust me?’ your daughters will ask. Here’s one answer: ‘yes, I trust you, but I don’t know and can’t trust all your friends and I’m not sure you know all of those who will, or might be, at the party well enough that you can really trust them all.’
Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni tribe of Britons circa 60 CE
Boudicca led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire
Just tell your daughters to take a good look at what Dr. Christine Blasey Ford and her family are going through, and ask themselves if this is where they want to be in 30 years, themselves. Human nature hasn’t changed in 40,000 plus years and it isn’t going to change in the next 40 years.
Last, I often pass a number of judo and karate studios near my local grocery and drug stores, and I always see far more boys than girls. Why? After all we’ve seen and heard since at least the mid-1990’s, and for anyone who studies any history after centuries of this, why aren’t ALL your daughters getting self-defense classes, starting in grade school? Let’s not just dress up our daughters as self-reliant, hardy princesses and super-heroes, or really good witches–let’s MAKE them real, self-reliant heroes.
One of the best recent commercials I’ve seen on television, is from Ancestry.com, showing a descendant of the ‘four mothers’ tribe run by warrior queens and warrior female armies that once really existed in Africa. There were other real warrior queens that once existed also, Boudicca, Grania O’Malley, even Elizabeth I –who rallied England to fight the Spanish. Let’s stop creating helpless, fragile princesses waiting for a Prince Charming, and hoping he is in character, as well as name. Instead, let’s have our daughters be confident warrior queens!
Editorial: Brexit Update
Latest Rounds of Talks Fail
Hard Border Likely to Return Between Northern Ireland and Ireland
October 18th, 2018 – by Cecilia Fábos-Becker
In June of 2016 the majority of the United Kingdom, (UK), electorate approved ‘Brexit’, a referendum that required the UK government to extract the UK from the European Union (EU), and in March of 2017, the 2 year process was officially begun. Much has resolved in these intervening months, but finding an agreeable set of necessarily renewed security and customs arrangements for the border which has partitioned the island of Ireland for nearly 100 years has not.
Despite many meetings, as two BBC News guests complained on Monday, October 15, it’s been another week of empty promises of ‘a deal is coming next week.’ In fact, the EU’s spokesperson for the negotiating team, Donald Tusk, and United Kingdom Prime Minister Theresa May‘s own coalition partner, Arlene Foster of the Democratic Unionist Party of Northern Ireland, (DUP), are in agreement on one thing; as of now, the ‘Brexit’ coming in March 2019, is going to be a hard one – Nothing that May wants will be granted by the European Union except for one thing: the UK will hold onto Northern Ireland as it is.
This outcome ignores the 56.44% majority of Northern Ireland voters, as well as the 62% majority in Scotland, who, by their votes in the Brexit Referendum, expressed the desire to remain in the EU. As of now, there will be no border in the Irish Sea between Northern Ireland and the UK and this week, both Arlene Foster and Theresa May indicated satisfaction in both statements and pictures. The latest public statements from the EU despite some late evening discussions on Wednesday was there was nothing new from Theresa May and her Conservative and Unionist Party-DUP coalition and therefore there is no deal.
The practicable deadline for a deal is December 2018, leaving time for a transition period from January through March 2019. Barring a leadership change in the UK parliament, or the Northern Irish somehow ending enough DUP MPs for the coalition that barely sustains Theresa May and the Tories, there will be a hard border again between Ireland and Northern Ireland. If there continues to be no deal between the UK and EU, a hard border must exist somewhere – that is the only possible outcome.
As per the BBC news reports last night, the EU spokespersons said the EU may grant the UK extra time in the ‘transition period’ to determine how it will handle the new customs policies and ports, and financial transactions, etc. This new proposal is that transition period, originally set by the Article 50 statute to end in March 2019, would perhaps end in December 2019, and most think it will be approved.
Theresa May forms a new Government
The problem is, Conservative and Unionist Party (Tory) party leader May wants what she wants, as the leader of one EU member, and the rest of the 27-member EU refuses to knuckle under to Ms. May and the UK. May wants all the good things of EU membership, such as free movement of goods and British citizens, and none of what has been perceived as ill, including open borders for movement of the EU peoples, and the West Asian and North African refugees they are willing to allow. Foster and May are accusing the EU of arrogance, yet ignoring the reality that a single EU member, the UK, representing only about 50 million persons, has chosen, of its own volition, to leave, while the other 27 nation-members, representing over 350 million persons, had no part in this decision and will remain in the EU.
From our viewpoint, outside Europe, it appears it is the UK behavior that is the more arrogant side. Psychologists often say that the self-delusional who do not wish to take responsibility for their own actions, ‘often accuse any challenger of his/her (the self-delusional) own worst sins.‘ It is up to the UK to bend, not the 27 member majority of Europe, just as no one would expect the other 49 states of the U.S. to submit to the demands of any one state, such as California, Texas, or New York.
The fact that some nations in the EU, like Germany have a few tens of billions of dollars in export sales to the UK is only one factor. The UK also sells to the 27 EU countries, and is not regularly seen as conducting fair trade and investments that benefit both parties equally by others, including Hungary and Poland, or even France. The 450 million other consumers in Europe are far more affluent than most of nations in the old British commonwealth, even the larger nations like Nigeria and India, and the Europeans know it. In fact, most of the would be migrants and refugees trying to flood Europe are NOT from West Asia but the UK’s former Commonwealth member, Nigeria. The UK will not be rid of the real, uneducated, African migrant problem, at all, but the rest of Europe soon might with Brexit. Let the British handle their own messes. If Nigeria is still a dependent, corrupt, non-self-sufficient nation, that is exactly as the UK set it up and then left it. If as its consuls and other officials have been saying, the UK intends to resurrect some form of the Commonwealth again to replace the EU, good–it can deal with Nigeria and all those migrants.
The biggest sticking point all along is that May and Foster have been adamant that they ‘will not break up the UK–regardless of what the majority in Northern Ireland, and Scotland might actually wish.’ Majority rule exists in the EU, and in England, but Scotland and Northern Ireland are not really separate and so the majorities in those parts of the UK have no voice and influence. They are simply outnumbered by the majority in the rest of the UK. We can only hope that if the majorities of Scotland and Northern Ireland, have something else to say to May and Foster, that for their own sakes, they will find a way to do so with votes, and maybe insist on some other status within the overall UK.
We’d like to suggest to the people of Northern Ireland and the rest of the UK a notion that has worked pretty well here in California. It’s a concept called ‘Recall’. If an elected legislator is caught in flagrantly corrupt or harmful activities, such as predatory sexual activities, taking bribes, or in the case of the recalled Governor Gray Davis, negotiates secret deals with corrupt energy companies that not only raise the costs of energy sky high to individual consumers–and business and then don’t deliver enough energy besides leading to black-outs and brown-outs, it is a means to cut short the damage and remove the person from power who did the damage and prevent him or her from doing more. We spent years undoing the damage Gray Davis but, but it could have been decades and we could have had far more damage in a variety of areas had he not been recalled. We also have another quaint concept that might interest them: it’s called ‘Referendum,’ and it can be initiated by the people, not the members of the legislature to undo a vote or legislative action by the legislature that proved a disaster. If it existed in the UK, the people, not Ms. May and the Parliament or its political parties would initiate a vote to undo the failed negotiations and overall Brexit departure. If the British people ever decide to enact this and try to use it, do so with great consideration and caution. Don’t use it lightly. It hasn’t always done what was hoped for in California, but a few times, just a few, it has.
As BBC and other international pundits noted this week, there is an existing way out, at least for Northern Ireland. The same majority that voted to remain in the EU, must, somehow, vote out the DUP and Ms. Foster, which will also bring down the current UK government of Ms. May, These same pundits also noted that if May and the Tories are dumped, the next likely PM will look more kindly on the majority vote of Northern Ireland, and eschew insistence on Northern Ireland remaining in the UK in its current status.
The Northern Irish then could ask for one or another of two things. The first possibility is dominion status, that allows it, like Canada to have control of its foreign policy, including trade, while continuing a relationship with the UK. The second possibility is reunification with the rest of Ireland, which seems increasingly possible, given the Irish Free State’s increasing secularism, and weakening of its former stringent ties with the Catholic Church. However, in the end, it is up to the Northern Irish people themselves to decide what they want to do and do it. It is the Northern Irish people who have the real power to break this dangerous logjam, not Ms. Foster and the DUP, nor Ms. May and the Tories.
Right now, the 27 nations of the EU are telling the Northern Irish that under the DUP and its support for Theresa May, the only choice is where the Northern Irish want the hard border to be: on the Irish sea or between Northern Ireland and Ireland? In the words of a mother, and perhaps exasperated older sisters and aunts, the 27 nation EU is telling Northern Ireland and the rest of the UK, as might be said to a temper tantrum-throwing three year old in the family: ‘you made the mess, you clean it up–I’m not doing it for you!’
As a person of mixed heritage, my British side, Scots, Irish, and even a little English, (mostly from Cornwall originally), I doesn’t like to see small countries made smaller, and my Hungarian side is reminded of what happened to all of east Europe when France, Italy and the UK decided to carve up Austria-Hungary into a bunch of tiny nations all competing with one another and thought Romania could handle any problems from the east and despises the prospect. Consider that after WWI, came economic depression for all of Europe, World War II and Hitler, followed by Stalin all happened, to the benefit of NONE of the peoples of the former Austro-Hungarian empire, and perhaps nearly as bad for entire rest of Europe.
The UK, though a now smaller nation in population and diminished in global power, is still an important part of Europe as whole and its withdrawal from the EU is also causing tensions and distrust in NATO. It must be asked, just how isolationist is the UK willing to become, in the face of real adversaries such as Putin, Assad, the House of Saud and the Wahhabi Imams, the Ayatollah and IRG in Iran, and China’s communist party?
It is also very true that wages and benefits have become as stagnant in the UK, and other parts of Europe, as they have for the majority of Americans, and yet costs of living for the majorities in almost all these countries have grown, and the needs for services for the bottom classes, and destitute people fleeing even worse, more murderous governments and civil strife. There were reasons that Brexit passed, and nationalism and populism has grown in Europe, with demands for better trade deals all round, particularly with China, India and other low wage, environmentally negligent, large countries. The usual elite decision makers of all the major political parties and their corporate executive cronies are now seen by the majority of people in many countries of Europe, Latin America and North America as having ignored the majority of employees, even the aspiring, educated and skilled middle ranks of engineers, market-makers and manager for far too long. The exasperated ordinary people are now, finally willing to vote in many places for the equivalent of rampaging bulls in China shops, to upend the status quo, to get the attention of the usual elites, if that is what it takes. At least it’s better than a reprise of 1789, or 1848, which considering how little human nature has changed since then, is something of a relief.
Within the UK, itself, though, it is also true that the economic development and welfare of Scotland and Ireland, including Northern Ireland were badly neglected with the original ‘acts of Union,’ and continued to lag. Conditions may be considered bad by the English and Welsh now, but they are only ‘catching down’ to what the Scots and Northern Irish have suffered for over 3 centuries for the former and 2 centuries for the latter. Yet, the Northern Irish and Scots do believe in international relations, trade and being able to garner international investments as a way out of their predicament with the UK. The UK looks at Scotland and Ireland rather as Canada used to look at the underpopulated remote ‘Northwest Territories’ or the U.S. looked at Alaska. They are underpopulated and have fewer voters and have fewer members of parliament. Because of climate and resources the two were never going to be equals in socio-political power, but did decline far more than they might have after the Acts of Union which abolished both the Scottish and Irish parliaments. Here is why. As political power all moved to London, so did the business, and socio-political elites of Ireland and Scotland, further exacerbating the neglect of Scotland and Ireland, leaving them in effect, orphaned. The people with the most power, money and influence literally packed up and moved to England, mostly around London. To this day, many of the great peers of Scotland, and business owners and financial executives, spend as much or more time in England as they do in Scotland or Northern Ireland. The Scots and Northern Irish can’t even really get much attention from what ought to be ‘their own.’ No wonder they are willing to look outside the UK.
Since Scotland’s last referendum on independence there have been promises to send more money to Scotland for development, but little real delivery. Northern Ireland has heard the same promises and seen a little more, only since the 1998 peace accords, but not nearly enough, either. How can the promises be fulfilled for either Scotland or Northern Ireland, though, if England’s own economy and finance industry is going to suffer from the separation of the UK from the EU, especially if the current trend toward a ‘hard fall Brexit’ continues under May and Foster.
May herself and her government just put out official warnings this week of what ‘is likely to happen,’ and in them was the first admission that the financial business sector, of England would be hit, and a conservative estimate of ‘5,000 jobs to be lost in the London Financial District.’ The history is, that during any UK crisis, England looks after England first, and the other parts of the UK take a bigger hit, as less populous and less important. My father’s people and their neighbors in East Europe used to say, ‘when Russia catches a cold, the rest of East Europe gets pneumonia.’ That’s pretty much what happens to Scotland and Northern Ireland when England is having difficulties, and it chafes more when the difficulties are of England’s own making, as it chafed for East Europeans more when Russia’s ‘cold’ was Russia’s own doing.
There are now six months left before Brexit will happen, whether the UK is ready or not.. While it was quietly predicted by British and a few European officials, for months, that ‘a deal will finally happen when everyone panics on both sides, about 2 or 3 months before March 29.’ The assumption of Ms. May and her government was and still is that the EU was going to panic also, that they really need and want the UK. That is not shaping up to be the case. The EU is determining that it may actually be in better shape to find other markets and that the British will still buy EU goods for their quality and geographic nearness, regardless of extra customs prices. That is, the UK needs the EU more than vice versa. The EU is not panicking, and increasingly its member states are also more nationalistic thinking of THEIR nations first, continental Europe second and the UK is barely on their radar of concern. So, ok people of the UK and Northern Ireland: you made the mess, you clean it up! This is not to say that the current state of public discourse in America sets a better example. Comedic Video: If England was a person / You Can’t Take England Anywhere!.
The U.S. will not be the escape valve for British citizens suffering from severe consequences of Brexit. Author and RTE news person, Caitriona Perry, interviewed numerous Trump voters for her book In America: Tales from Trump Countryand we heard her presentation at the Irish Arts Festival in Los Gatos, Saturday, October 13th. Please note, people of Northern Ireland, Scotland and the rest of the UK, that the Irish American Trump voters in 2016 have since then been quite dismayed that Trump has no intention of allowing hordes of Irish and Scots freely into the U.S., any more than hordes of any other nation.In fact, ICE has been deporting undocumented Irish immigrants as much as it has others, though the numbers of deportations have been small (only about 50 in the last 4 years of Obama and Trump) compared to the actual numbers, (over 30,000) of illegal Irish immigrants in the U.S.. Silicon Valley employers are complaining that H-1B visas are also being cut. Both issues have already noted by officials of Ireland to be ‘of concern’, and they should be of concern to the UK. As several American Trump voters told Ms. Perry, ‘native’ means people who were born in the U.S. only. Most of these nativists have little to NO regard for ANYONE, regardless of race, who was not born in the U.S. and as long as those 25 million voters in 13 states are still feeling as though they are greatly suffering this will not change.
Perhaps our friends in Canada and Australia, might be more welcoming, as they were when the UK exported Scots and Irish in past centuries. At least Canada is still a dominion of the UK, though it appears Australia will soon change separate themselves and become a Republic, like Ireland and the USA.
10 Celtic Nations (Switzerland in Purple)
Essay: Peace, Prosperity and Celtic Referendums
Celtic Conflict and the Principal of Self-determination
A personal perspective by Tony Becker and Cecilia Fabos-Becker 2018-06-02
Have you ever thought about the fact that, throughout the Age of Empires, which included The Roman Empire, a Khmer Empire, the Mongol Empire, a German Empire and even a Holy Roman Empire, there never was a Celtic Empire? We attribute that seeming puzzlement to the strain (or perhaps stain) of love of individual freedom that was always part of Celtic culture. Since arising in the ancient region of Central Europe, for these past 3 millennia the Celtic culture has been pushed uphill and westwards. (See Map)
A few weeks ago, we wrote about Central European country of Switzerland, whose alpine people still proudly self-identify as Celts. This ancient people have never had a king, preferring to own allegiances and laws within their Confederation of Helvetia over any form of monarchy. Likely, the mountainous terrain of their country was a significant aid to them in resisting the encroachments of their neighboring Empires. One can say the Swiss were among the first post-Classical people to practice the Principle of Self-determination.
Long before the British Empire’s Acts of Union of 1707 and 1800, our Celtic ancestors were often pitted against each other, too often to argue the point. From the map, it is clear that these centuries of defeats had pushed all Celtic peoples into the mountains or up against the Atlantic Ocean before they finally laid aside their rivalries and united against their opponents, and by then the task of rolling back these encroachments was too much to be reversed.
The British Empire‘s Acts of Union are prime examples of tyranny, especially the first, which was imposed by the English on the Scots by putting Scotland under extreme duress while demanding that they acquiesce. By 1707, with few exceptions, the aristocrats who controlled both the land and the Parliament of Scotland had long ceased to be Scottish, and most had lost their fortunes in disastrous foreign investment schemes.
Aggressor England deployed an English Army on Independent Scotland’s border, and then threatened to invade Scotland if the Scottish Parliament did not agree to accept England’s terms. Simultaneously, huge bribes were paid to supporters of Union that modern research has proved were NOT overdue salaries as claimed. At least four such payments were made to people who were not even members of the Scottish Parliament. No less a figure of Scottish culture than Robert Burns castigated them for their treason in his wildly popular 1791 poem, Such a Parcel of Rogues in a Nation:
Of course, the English aristocrats who held the seats in the ‘Scottish’ Parliament, pocketed the bribes and acceded, thereby abolishing the country the were sworn to protect and defend. The Scottish people were never allowed to vote on this question, but instead lost their independence as the United Kingdom was created against their riotous public objections.
Meanwhile, on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean, English, Scottish and Scots-Irish immigrants were building their own, new society as the new people of what we now call America. After a few generations, many Americans were of Celtic ancestry, but as whole, early America encompassed much greater diversity of ethnicity, socio-economic status, and culture than in of the European homelands. The British Empire denied these American colonists full civil and human rights, forbade them from full participation in business and trade, and imposed unfair tax policies which they jealous enforced. These abuses created a motive and their distance from England offered an opportunity for relief, and so these Americans arose to oppose the tyranny of George III and his minions. Americans joined behind the principled ideas of the Declaration of Independence and the leadership of one of their own, George Washington, and successfully ejected their oppressors in one of the most significant political events in the History of the World, The American Revolution. One can say these American Revolutionaries were the most significant practitioners of the Principle of Self-determination.
We have a personal interest in this, as these American Revolutionaries included some of our ancestors.
All Tony’s immigrant ancestors came to America from Europe prior to 1900. The Austrians, Germans, and Irish in the mid-19th century and the Welsh and Scots in the late 17th Century. The latter two (Beebe and McCormack) fought for American Independence from Great Britain with George Washington in the Northern theater of the American Revolution.
More than half of Celia’s ancestors were Scottish and Scots-Irish. Celia has traced dozens of them back to Ireland and Scotland in the 16th and 17th centuries, and all these came to what were the British Colonies of America prior to the UK’s Acts of Union. Celia’s mother was a Wallace, and several of their Wallace ancestors served with George Washington in the Southern theater of the American Revolution. Six Wallace brothers, Samuel, Andrew, John, James, Malcolm and Adam Wallace from Rockbridge (formerly Botetourt, and Augusta) County Virginia served, and all but one in Southern Campaigns of the American Revolutionary War. Five of them died as a result of their service to the just cause of American Independence.
Notably, one of these, Captain Adam Wallace, fought British Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton and died at the Battle of Waxhaws on May 29, 1780 when Tarleton’s troops hacked him and several hundred others to death with their sabers and bayonets after they had surrendered. Just a few months later and a few miles away, at the Battle of Kings Mountain on October 7, 1780, the fresh memory of the massacre at Waxhaws gave the mostly Scottish ‘Over Mountain Men’ good reason to repeatedly charge up the hill, shouting ‘Tarleton’s Quarter‘, killing fellow Scot, Major Patrick Ferguson and dealing the British Army’s ‘Southern Strategy’ it’s first humiliating defeat.
As Celia continued her research into her ancestors, she has found that some of her many contemporary Kentucky and Tennessee fore bearers fought with Col. Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans. Between December 14, 1814 and January 18, 1815, Jackson’s scratch army dealt the British forces under Irish General Edward Pakenham, including several regiments of Scottish Highlanders, another humiliating defeat as the British Empire tried in vain to recapture some part of their former American colonies. Celia’s ancestors also died at the hands of Native allies of the British just after the January 8th, 1815 battle.
After Independence and the War of 1812, the new Nation of the United States and the British Empire remained wary of each other. Mutual hostility continued unabated for nearly another 100 years, and was only broken by President Woodrow Wilson when he guided America into the First World War on the Allied side.
Wilson’s ancestors were late arrivals in America. None of Wilson’s ancestors were of the Revolutionary War American stock. Woodrow Wilson was the son of an immigrant mother from England, and the grandson of immigrant grandparents from Ireland and Scotland, all of them loyal subjects of the Crown. As recent immigrants, these ancestors remained deferential to the Crown, and Wilson himself was personally besotted with the British monarchy.
During these 100 years since the American Revolution, the Industrial Revolution had transformed the world’s economy. One crucial transformation was that America had become the world’s principal shipper of Arms and Munitions to the British Empire, and therefore the target of choice for both the German Empire and later the Third Reich and the Empire of Japan as they fought two world wars against the Allies. As the Germans in the then Triple Alliance, and later, as the Nazis, attacked American shipping with U-Boats, and later the Japanese attacked the US Navy with dive bombers, it is no wonder the US was at last forced into these Alliances with the UK, but the real cause was these commercial entanglements.
Still, there was one Celtic nation that gained Independence from the British Empire at about that time, Ireland. After the British Empire imposed another tyrannical Act of Union on Ireland in 1801, as well as the cruel Penal Laws which made Irish Catholics non-citizens in their native land, there were several attempts to emancipate the Irish people, as well as several unsuccessful Irish ‘Risings’ during these same 100 years.
Late in the 19th Century, it seemed as though Home Rule would be granted to Ireland, but the majority Protestants in the counties of Northern Ireland (the Province of Ulster), were violently opposed to being ruled by majority Catholic counties of the rest of the island and on 13th December 1912, during the third home rule crisis, the Ulster Unionist Council (UUC) decided officially to establish a paramilitary body, the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) to prevent Home Rule. In response, the Irish Volunteer Force (IVF) (later known as the Irish Republican Army or IRA) was publicly launched in Dublin on November 25th, 1913 to oppose the UVF. In the Larne gun-running of April 1914, the UVF imported 25,000 rifles and three million rounds of ammunition from the German Empire and by mid 1914, UVF membership peaked at 90,000 men. Meanwhile, the IVF had 160,000 men but far fewer arms. In Westminster, there were well justified fears that setting up any form of Home Rule for the whole of Ireland would start a full-scale civil war in Ulster and Home Rule for Ireland was delayed (again!).
But on July 28th, 1914, WW I broke out and large numbers of these men enlisted in the British Army. Seeing their opportunity, on Easter Monday, 1916, the Irish rose again. Although this Easter Rising was initially unsuccessful, when the Irish people saw the cruel execution of so many heroic Irish patriots, it steeled their collective resolve to break free from Britain. The fighting continued for years, and included a Civil War between Republican factions (Sinn Féin) who opposed the partition demanding all 32 counties of Ireland become a single united nation, and those who were willing to accept the Free State Treaty and Partition offered by the English.
The Partition of Ireland was partly justified by the results of an election. Barely a month after the November 11th, 1918 Armistice ending World War I, on Saturday December 14th, 1918, the UK held a general election and the Sinn Féin Party won the overwhelming majority of the Irish parliamentary seats. In January 1919 the Sinn Féin members declared unilaterally an independent (all-island) Irish Republic. Unionists, however, won a majority of seats in four of the nine counties of Ulster and the day after the Government of Ireland Act of 1920 took force, on May 3rd, 1921 they affirmed their continuing loyalty to the United Kingdom, and petitioned King George V for a separate self-governing parliament for Northern Ireland.
Still, partly by this election result, by 1922 most of Ireland had achieved Independence, with dominion status for 26 of Ireland’s 32 counties. Also by this election result, the remaining six Irish counties were partitioned into Northern Ireland, and remained part of the United Kingdom.
Woodrow Wilson became a believer in the Principle of Self-determination – at least for West Europe. On February 11th, 1918 Wilson stated: ‘National aspirations must be respected; people may now be dominated and governed only by their own consent. Self determination is not a mere phrase; it is an imperative principle of action.’
During World War II, the Principle of Self-determination was included in the Atlantic Charter, signed on August 14th, 1941, by Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States, and Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, who pledged to uphold The Eight Principal points of the Atlantic Charter. In 1948, the Principle of Self-determination became a formal part of the Charter of the United Nations. That same year, Ireland shed it’s Dominion status and became a fully Independent Nation, with Northern Ireland still joined to the United Kingdom and subjects of the Crown.
Ireland has not been entirely peaceful over these years since 1948. In the late 1960’s, ethnic / sectarian fighting in Northern Ireland (The Troubles), began and continued for 3 decades, but since 1998, with the successful multi-party Good Friday Agreement (see last weeks Editorial: the Good Friday Agreement), violence in Northern Ireland has been sporadic over its first 20 years.
Across our several decades, we’ve encountered persons who were on both sides of these ‘Troubles‘ in Northern Ireland. Some of them justified their terrorism and mass murder by claiming that the ends justify the means. Our answer is the same now as first time we encountered such talk from an IRA man visiting in the U.S. at McCafferty’s Pub in Saint Paul, Minnesota in about 1973.
Killing for a cause is wrong, especially in modern times when there are better options.
From the first days President Johnson’s escalation of the Vietnam War, Celia was an anti-war protester. Her classmates were being sent to die for corporate control of resources in foreign countries, when they did not even have the right to vote. The American People were being lied to repeatedly, and their most precious resource, human lives, were being wasted. As a female, she had even fewer rights and opportunities in the U.S.. Discrimination against women was still legal, and there was worse that could be done.
During the Vietnam war era, we are glad to say we and the organizations in which we participated never broke or bent the law, never hurled a brick, bottle or even any four-letter epithets. We ejected individuals who tried to advocate otherwise, and shunned groups that broke laws and engaged in violence. Instead, we found every lawful means to expose the truth and persuade those with the power of votes to finally stop the war.
Over those years, Celia paid a price for her efforts more than once. She got onto Nixon’s enemies list and survived at least three attempts on her life before she reached 21–one of which occurred in public. She was not alone. If that generation could stop a war, end virtual apartheid (segregation) in the U.S. and expand civil rights without the use of bombs, guns and other forms of violence, there should and can be a peaceful path in any other modern, reasonably democratic country — not everyone is cut out for the harder stuff, but every voter can vote for what is right.
In these past 20 years, another significant trend, Globalization, has shaken the socio-economic fabric of the world. We assert that Globalization, is every bit as significant to the 21st Century as the Industrial Revolution was to the 19th Century.
In September 2014, the Principle of Self-determination was employed, enabling an Independence Referendum in Scotland. This first one, went down to defeat as Scottish voters split, with 55.30% voting to remain in the UK and only 44.70% voting for an Independent Scotland.
2016 Brexit Referendum Results
As the 100th anniversary of the 1916 Easter Rising was celebrated in Dublin at Easter 2016, Ireland was still a mostly peaceful island, and though the British Empire was largely gone, the rest of the UK was still intact with both Scotland and Northern Ireland still joined with the United Kingdom. In June, 2016, the Principle of Self-determination was again employed to put the question of the UK leaving the European Union to the electorate in a United Kingdom European Union membership referendum (commonly known as Brexit), and it narrowly passed, with 51.89% voting to leave the European Union.
Britain has long been of two minds with regard to the rest of Europe, a fact satirized with typical dry wit by writers Anthony Jay and Jonathan Lynn of the 1980’s British television comedy, ‘Yes, Minister‘. In this clip, https://youtu.be/lFBgQpz_E80, their officious bureaucrat lead character, Sir Humphrey Appleby, explains that Britain had to get inside the EU in order to ‘Break the whole thing up.’
In the lead-up to the Brexit vote, some British leaders argued that, as part of the EU, the UK had ceded to much of its full rights of self-determination, by being subordinate to the laws of others. One of the big issues was immigration from certain parts of the world. There are definitely serious problems in the EU that it would take two or three more editorials to cover adequetely. However, in the words of well-respected analysts from reputable British institutions, some of the biggest issues were ‘not made by the EU, but rather were actually Commonwealth laws passed by the UK’s own parliament prior to joining the EU!’ Free passage of persons, goods and citizenship were guaranteed to all these peoples of the British Commonwealth in 1949 and 1965. Some of the pro-Brexit voters seem to have forgotten that the colonial British Empire, had included many of these ‘small nations’, as well as the financial inequities that existed.
With the Principle of Self-determination and the mechanism of the Referendum now both well established, likewise, there will likely be more plebiscites, where all the members of an electorate get to vote on such important policy questions.
Let us consider the possibility of a second Independence Referendum in Scotland. A swing of just 5.3% would take a second Independence Referendum to victory, and cause Scotland to join Ireland and America as Independent Countries. In the Brexit vote a mere 2 years ago, (See Map), only 38.0% of Scots voted to Leave and a whopping 62.0% voted to Remain in the EU. If Scotland is forced out of the EU by Brexit, the Scottish electorate will resent it, and the younger, newly enfranchised voters all the more so.
Let’s suppose that a second Scottish Independence Referendum passes and an Independent Scotland remains in the EU. Of course, Independent Ireland would remain a member of the EU, so both of Northern Ireland’s Celtic neighbors would be EU members. What would the voters of Northern Ireland do?
In the Brexit vote 2 years ago, only 44.2% of Northern Ireland’s voters marked ‘Leave’ while a majority of 55.8% voted to ‘Remain’ (See Map). Should the question of Northern Ireland remaining in the EU be asked in a future referendum, would the DUP continue to raise the specter of the Sinn Fein and insist that they continue to look to the now smaller UK for protection? Would the younger, newly enfranchised voters of Northern Ireland be likely to follow this siren call?
Or would Northern Ireland’s voters strike for renewed trade, peace and prosperity within the EU, like their Celtic neighbors, Scotland and Ireland?
Remarks of Dan Mulhall
Ambassador of Ireland to the United States of America
San Francisco, Wednesday, July 18th, 2018
Published July 26th, 2018
Daniel Mulhall is Ireland’s Ambassador to the USA, and he visted the Bay Area last week. Mulhall took up duty as Ireland’s 18th Ambassador to the United States in August 2017. He was born and brought up in Waterford and undertook his undergraduate and post-graduate studies at University College Cork where he specialised in modern Irish history.
Ambassador Mulhall joined the Department of Foreign Affairs in 1978. His assignments include Brussels, Belgium (European Union) and Edinburgh, Scotland where he was Ireland’s first Consul General, and just before coming to Washington, Ambassador Mulhall served as Ireland’s Ambassador in London from 2013 to 2017.
Here is a copy of his remarks given at the San Francisco World Affairs Council on Wednesday, July 18th, 2018:
‘Ireland is going through an interesting time of change at present, politically, socially and economically.
Politically, a younger generation of politicians has taken the helm. Our Taoiseach (Prime Minister), Leo Varadkar is 39 years old while his deputy, Foreign Minister Simon Coveney, and Finance Minister, Paschal Donohoe, are both in their mid-40s. Inevitably, they bring a fresh mind-set to bear on their responsibilities in Government. All three are very good communicators and they have rolled out some ambitious plans, such as Global Ireland, which aims to double Ireland’s international footprint in the coming decade. One aspect of this initiative will be the opening next year of a new Irish Consulate in Los Angeles, which will become Ireland’s seventh Consulate in this country. As things stand, only a handful of much larger countries have more Consulates across the US than we have. This reflects the unique relationship that exists between Ireland and the United States.
The impact of social change in Ireland can be seen in a number of places. First, the outcome of the referendum we held in 2015 which resulted in marriage equality being approved by 62% of those who turned out to vote.
Confounding predictions that the measure would be popular in Ireland’s cities but would be rejected in rural areas, all, bar one, of our electoral districts voted in favour of this constitutional change. Thus, to the surprise of many people around the world, Ireland became the first country anywhere to legalise same sex marriage by popular vote.
In last month’s referendum on abortion, 66% of those who voted gave their approval for a liberalisation of Ireland’s abortion laws. It is not necessary to make any judgement about the abortion issue in order to see how far public attitudes have shifted since the 8th amendment to our Constitution introduced a ban on abortion in 1984. At that time, 67% voted to enshrine the right to life of the unborn in the Constitution.
Another indicator of social change is the fact that today 17% of Ireland’s population was born outside of our state. This is an astonishing turnaround for a country that historically has exported its people all over the world and especially to the United States. Back in the 1990s, the foreign-born percentage of our population was in the low single figures.
Education provides another illustration of the changes that have occurred in Ireland in recent decades. Having invested heavily in our education system, our labour force is among the best qualified in the world. Today, some 60% of our school leavers enter third level education and in the 25-39 age group about 50% have 3rd-level qualifications. Ireland now has one of the youngest populations in Europe, with 40% of our people under 29.
Another point of note is that these dramatic demographic changes have not given rise in Ireland to the kind of populist resistance that has become a fact of life elsewhere. No Irish political party has adopted anti-immigrant policies and the kind of Euroscepticism that is rife in other parts of Europe has to date found no echo in Ireland.
Ireland’s economic transformation has its roots in decisions taken as far back as the 1950s and the 1960s to open up our economy to trade and foreign investment, and to seek membership of the European Union. EU membership turned out to be a game-changer for Ireland. It is not that this has been a smooth, unhindered progression towards prosperity and economic security. When Ireland joined the EU in 1973, our per capita wealth levels were around 60% of the EU average and it took us a long time to bridge the prosperity gap between ourselves and our continental neighbours. Today, Ireland is comfortably above the Union’s wealth average.
We did, of course, endure some torrid years during the Great Recession that began in 2008/9. As a small open economy, we were very vulnerable to those seismic external shocks. As a consequence of the international downturn and the travails of our banks, Ireland’s debt levels and joblessness figures soared. We were forced into an EU-IMF programme in 2010, which was a low ebb for modern Ireland. Since that time, our economy stabilised and we now have had the strongest growth figures in the Euro Zone for the past four years. Unemployment in Ireland is now down to just over 5% from 15% at its height.
Ireland’s success story has a strong American flavour. US investment in Ireland has undoubtedly helped change the shape of our economy. Today some 700 US firms have operations in Ireland where they employ 150,000, some 7% of our workforce. Their main reason for being there is that Ireland gives them a base within the European single market and they can tap into a well-educated, English-speaking workforce. Moreover, successive Irish Governments have created an environment conducive to business success. Our fair and transparent system of corporation tax, with a flat rate of 12.5%, is also part of Ireland’s attraction.
The outlook for Ireland at present is very positive. Our economy seems set to continue growing strongly in the coming years, but there are a couple of clouds on our horizon. The first is the decision of the UK to leave the EU, (Brexit-ed) which we did not want to see happen but have to learn to cope with.
Ireland has a unique relationship with the UK, a product of geography, history and people-to-people links. That relationship will continue to be vital to us and it will remain so in the future.
The so-called Brexit poses genuine challenges for Ireland, to our trade links with Britain and with regard to Northern Ireland. Among our EU partners, Ireland is uniquely exposed to Brexit-generated disruptions and for that reason we will be looking to keep the UK closely aligned to the EU so as to minimise the impact on trade flows between us.
Our Government is determined to maintain the current invisible border between north and south in Ireland. In this we have the support of our EU partners and the British Government is also in agreement. The problem is how to achieve this in a situation where the UK leaves the single market and the customs union as it says it plans to do.
Our Government welcomes the recent British White Paper on its future relationship with the EU which seems to us to provide a basis for negotiations between the Commission and the British Government. Ireland wants to see those negotiations succeed, and hopes that Britain will be able to show the requisite flexibility in order to find the right balance between the advantages of free trade with the EU and the obligations that must inevitably accompany such a privileged relationship.
There will also be an upside for Ireland from Brexit. This is because the UK’s departure from the EU will make Ireland an even more attractive location for US FDI than it already is. We expect to gain quite a lot of investment in the years ahead as companies look for a European base that will give them guaranteed access to the single market. There will also be scope for Ireland to play an enhanced role in trans-Atlantic relations on the back of our close traditional and contemporary ties with the US.
This brings me to the second international challenge on Ireland – tensions in trans-Atlantic economic relations. These are of special concern to Ireland given our extensive stake in trans-Atlantic trade and investment. Few countries have benefited as strongly as Ireland has from the globalisation of recent decades and we have every interest in seeing a continuation of this positive environment. The fact is that the EU-US economic relationship is one of mutual advantage. Ireland is a good example of the mutual advantage that flows from our trade and investment ties. US investment has helped to strengthen Ireland’s economy and in turn Irish companies have increasingly been investing in the US where today some 500 Irish firms employ around 100,000 Americans in all 50 US States.
It would be a mutually-damaging development if those productive trans-Atlantic exchanges were to give way to a tit-for-tat imposition of tariffs. This is why my country will continue to be an active exponent of continued free flows of trade and investment across the Atlantic.’
Power Weaving, England, 1836
Editorial: Virtues of Celtic Culture
Have the tables turned?
By Cecilia Fábos-Becker – Published 2018-05-10
We usually think of ‘Celtic Culture‘ in just a few ways: drinking, music and some forms of sports. Historically there has been more that is distinctively Celtic. This past week, as I researched the Irish experience in England for my husband’s family history book I found contemporary articles reporting that, between the 1830 and 1860, about 800,000 Irish became economic emigrants to England. The articles explained why the Irish came and how they were treated and regarded.
Back in Ireland, the Catholic Irish didn’t own much of their own land, nor businesses. The English colonial government and land-owners hadn’t invested in much infrastructure, nor any manufacturing in Ireland, preferring to maximize profits in England, and, of course, sell to the larger, more affluent English consumer market.
As a rapidly industrializing economy replaced subsistence farming, displaced cottage industries and mechanized farming, then, as now, people needed wealth, from jobs that paid decently, or owning land and leasing it out, or owning or leasing enough to farm for profit, not mere subsistence, or own profitable businesses. Under the Penal Laws, Catholic Irish were not allowed to own land or businesses in Ireland. It was also harder for them to get an education and trade or professional skills. Schools cost money also.
Across the Irish Sea, many of the newest, dirtiest and most hazardous jobs of the new industrial economy were available to the immigrant Irish. Passage to England on the deck of a packet steamship going from the smaller Irish ports to Liverpool and Bristol, near England’s industrial heartland, only cost four pence. These were jobs ‘native born’ Anglo-Saxon-Norman English were unwilling to take.
Scots also emigrated into England, though more Irish went to Scotland than Scots to England. The Scots went mostly as skilled labor, and upper levels of service, as education was less difficult to obtain for Scots than Irish.
I read several articles that described how the Irish took the jobs no one else wanted, the worst of the coal mining jobs, ‘they didn’t balk at being told to go down into a dark pit’ working with chemicals with no modern protections, hauling and laying stone and brick for buildings and roads, hauling away trash, including ‘night soil,’ and dead animals, cleaning cesspits and sewers. They ‘were willing to work for 9 and 10 shillings a week instead of 12-14 that the Englishmen wanted, because their needs and wants were simpler, having come from original homes where they lived more simply with less goods… They lived on potatoes, pigs and cabbages and little else… (Actually they also ate mutton and whatever bits of beef weren’t wanted by others, that they could stew or baked in a meat pie heavy with lard and flour.) They would repair clothing and shoes until there was nothing left to sew together.’ ‘They are quick to learn, and adaptable to changing work conditions.’
However, there was another side that disturbed the English factory owners and class-conscious managers in a highly structured society. ‘Every Irishman believes he’s just as good as anyone else, Irish or not… He is quick to put down his tools (strike) if he believes he has been treated unfairly. He is quick to attack with his fists as words… The Irish drink and fight too much. They could do better by their families if they didn’t waste what little extra money they have on drinking so much, etc… They were also seen as slovenly in their homes and in their personal attire, to ‘filthy,’ though much of the last complaints were as much the result of no running water in most places the poor Irish were allowed to rent, and no water closets (earth closets instead–a pail with a box of clay over it, where one pulled the lever and dropped clay over the waste and then eventually had to remove and dump the full pails and refill the clay containers. The Irish had never known indoor plumbing in Ireland and had not bathed frequently there, either. However, they usually had their own well, and didn’t have to share a well or pump in a courtyard with a half dozen other families, or haul water for bathing and washing clothes as far as they were required to do in most English cities.
In the complaints though, were virtues and heritage the English did not understand. The Irish, and most Scots, were not into insatiable consumerism, even when they had money. They lived simply and didn’t accumulate lots of ‘stuff.’ Having stuff didn’t define the worth of a man or a family. This meant that, with care, they actually could live on less than an Englishman who used ostentation to try to establish his social value and status. Even in Roman times, early Christian times, and later, when the English coming to Ireland first saw the Irish, even the lords of the then great Irish clans, it was repeatedly observed how the Irish and Scots lived much more simply than other peoples, more humbly with less ostentation. The Irish, even before the English, also did indeed believe every Irishman was as good as any other. Kings were not dynastic father to son, and neither were heads of clans, but often accepted as kings and chiefs, only as they fought each other and outmaneuvered and out-organized each other to MAKE themselves leaders. It was brutal, deadly, and while it was quite egalitarian that anyone of a surname could make himself head of a clan, or any clan could seize a kingship it divided the country and allowed the English to invade, increase the divisions, and conquer all.
The Irish had a system of law, Brehon law, but no independent of clans and kings means, that all could agree upon to enforce the law, no independent universally supported judicial bodies with any necessary armed support, such as sheriffs and deputies. The Scots did adopt a more enforceable code of law and sheriffs, and had more towns which elected governments and had their own defense systems. However, the Scots also had similar clan and family warfare to the Irish, and more Stuart kings died by murder than in their beds peacefully. Again, it was relatively easy for the English to divide the Scots in the 17th and early 18th centuries and write the Act of Union to their own advantage and effectively invade, conquer and colonize.
‘Divine Right of Kings’ is not a Celtic concept or value. Instead, it’s ‘any man can make himself a king,’ and they never took kindly to anyone insisting upon a lot of deference because he’d made himself a king. Kings could be, and were deposed, often violently by the next bigger and better wannabe. The Irish and Scots were not into rigid caste systems. Individual merits and skills and caring for families were more important than birth or temporary excessive wealth which could be taken or destroyed. It is unfortunate for the Scots and Irish that they never developed their egalitarian views of human life and interaction into what one group of Celts in Europe, the Swiss, did, and learn to elect leaders with terms of election so they could remove them without civil strife and murder.
The Celts were also very interested in education and making it available to all people, not just a select few. Anyone could become a druid, a metal smith, acquire and maintain a decent herd, etc.. The monasteries in Ireland and Scotland were many and filled with sons of even what the English would have called tenant farmers, not even yeoman class, and not all were to become monks. The Scottish king, James IV was much better educated and had a larger library than his counterpart Henry VIII, though James would have done better to have a bit more on military organization, strategies and weaponry. In ancient Celtic society, the Celts were known as master craftsmen in metal work of all kinds, leather work, and textiles and taught these skills and were quick to learn and adapt new techniques from neighbors. Flemish weavers brought into Scotland and Ireland had many students and transformed the industries in both countries rapidly in 14th and 15th centuries. The Celts were also superior herdsmen and knew how to breed and adapt domestic livestock for more variations in climate and terrain. The ‘Scots cattle were as hardy as the Scots themselves,’ wrote more than one observer in the 17th century. The Scots and the Swiss were quick to create systems of public education that started with the Protestant reformation and the idea that ‘all men should be able to read the Bible themselves and not need a human intermediary between them and their God,’ and ‘if all men and women have a good basic education in reading, writing and arithmetic, they will be more able to take care of themselves in more ways and be less dependent upon charity from Churches and communities.’ Although education was made more difficult to obtain in Catholic Ireland, whenever Irish moved anywhere they could avail themselves of education (including skills training for trades) for adults and children, they took full advantage of it. My husband’s Irish great-grandparents were absolutely overjoyed that Pennsylvania, even in the coal mining towns, offered a public education to all children, regardless of ethnicity or religion and urged their children to stay in school and make the most of this service, as long as possible, to get ahead. The Celts loved education and the arts and skill-requiring crafts, and they have excelled at these for thousands of years.
All of these interests, ideas and skills continued not just in Ireland and Scotland, but in Switzerland as well, with one big difference. The Swiss continued to own their own country and its resources and its industries, and owning all this were more willing to invest in all them–including their human resources. They weren’t the colonial subjects, or second class subjects of anyone else. The Swiss weren’t perfect. Until they industrialized and became the banking center of Europe, they bred and provided more mercenary warriors for the rest of Europe than almost any other country. There were serious differences between the rural parts of cantons and the towns and cities and the rural areas engaged in the time-honored Celtic tradition of ‘laying down their tools and taking up their arms,’ to finally obtain adequate redress, going back to the ancient Celtic idea that all men were fundamentally equal, and hard-working men and women who tried hard to better themselves in all ways were worthy of equal respect and treatment.
After reading all of this, I found myself also thinking of all the headlines and anger and divisiveness now in this country, and political upheavals, yet electing for decades elitist, ostentatious, millionaire and billionaire members of state houses and a national Congress, politicians who either neglect or abuse us. We have tons of personal weapons yet do not use them for either actually sustaining ourselves or righting wrongs, and don’t need them to fight off an invading foreign army–we have the many times largest defense budget and forces than any several other nations, combined, in the entire world for that. We have increased incivility and no real communication, much less dialogue and compromise. We throw tantrums very well, but what have we really gained from them?. We have 12 years of public school education and about 40% of the graduates can barely read and write their names and addresses but know every rock/ sports star’s name and details of his or her career and what the latest style in shoes is. We mass produce lots of stuff, and put ourselves into bankruptcy repeatedly acquiring it, but little of it is high quality or displays real craftsmanship or skill, and most falls apart and doesn’t even biodegrade in the landfills to which it’s eventually hauled–by someone else.
None of this has led to any real improvement in the lives of millions of families for decades. Our present and future is really up to us, as it was for our ancestors. Yet, what are most of those who have the greatest real needs and complaints actually DOING about it, for themselves, compared with their Celtic forebears? I, and many others, have realized that some of the worst economic situations complaints and anger, is coming from areas of the nation that are most Celtic in DNA, if not heritage. This bothers me a lot–I’m more than half Celtic, also! These are my relatives hurting and complaining and stuck in a deep, dark, stinking rut. I have to wonder, though, what would our Celtic ancestors would think of their modern descendants in the U.S.? They struggled to get an education for their children, packed up and moved when necessary and did all kinds of really dirty, nasty jobs and did them WELL to make a living, who also organized and stood up for themselves, sometimes at great physical risk, to obtain justice and fairness, when necessary. Have we finally become like the English of the 1830’s-1860’s and lost more of our real Celtic heritage – which is what the class-conscious English originally wanted us all to do?
Editorial: The Good Friday Agreement
Twentieth Anniversary Reflections by George Mitchell
May 7th 2018, The Olympic Club, 524 Post Street, San Francisco
After 30 years of civil strife, the Good Friday Agreement was signed 10 April 1998, bringing Peace to Northern Ireland. The Good Friday Agreement is actually two documents:
- a multi-party agreement by most of Northern Ireland’s political parties (the Multi-Party Agreement)
- an international agreement between the British and Irish governments (the British-Irish Agreement).
Because of this multi-lateral nature, it’s 20th Anniversary was celebrated by a month long, multi-city, international tour of commemorations and celebrations.
As part of this tour, on May 7th 2018, the Agreement’s chief negotiator, US Senator George Mitchell, spoke at San Francisco’s Olympic Club, and the event was sponsored by the NI Bureau (a part of the Executive Office of Northern Ireland), the local Consulates of both Ireland and the UK, and the California Legislative Irish Caucus. Thanks to the good efforts of our friend Donagh Mc Keown, you can watch a video of Senator Mitchell’s 22 minute address at this link, Mitchell’s address at Good Friday 20th Anniversary Event in San Francisco.
In the words of Senator Mitchell, ‘By itself, the Good Friday Agreement does not guarantee Peace; it makes it possible.’ Senator Mitchell went on to say, ‘The real heroes of the Agreement were the leaders and the people of Northern Ireland. The people supported the effort, … and afterwards, they voted overwhelmingly to ratify it.’ with 71% in favor, and ‘In Northern Ireland, these (political leaders) were ordinary men and women. After 700 days of failure, they joined in one day of success, and they changed the course of history.’
Over these last 20 years, has that course been lost? Have most of these Celtic heroes died? Did they fail to raise enough children who believed in peace as they did? What will it take to restore and build on the ‘Good Friday Agreement,’ now–another bloody civil war?
It seems that historic agreement may now be in danger of falling apart, for the same reasons strife has ensued in northern Ireland since 1641. This situation makes the peoples who live in Northern Ireland no different, in no way superior, to those who hate, discriminate and kill in West Asia on the basis of being Shi’ite vs. Sunni, or any of the current highly polarized political sects that lead to the Brexit outcome in the UK or the 2016 Presidential Election results in the USA.
Senator Mitchell went on, ‘We should not hold Northern Ireland to a standard higher than we apply to ourselves.’
In fact, the peoples of Northern Ireland, indeed, all of Ireland and most of Scotland, have fewer actual differences of ethnicity, language, culture and history than who identify as either Shi’ite or Sunni, Leave or Stay, or Red or Blue.
In Northern Ireland, the discrimination and disagreements of the past few centuries to today are based solely on religion. In contrast with the over 3,000 years of shared history between these Islands, including Ireland, most of Scotland and even parts of what are now northern England, these two sects of ‘Christianity,’ are a recent development, less than 500 years old.
Too many people forget about these millennia of shared history. When the Romans conquered the Brythonic speaking southern part of the island of Britannia, they wrote about the ‘Scoti’ the Roman name for the Gaels who inhabited the north-western portion of Britannia and all of the adjacent island, Hibernia. After the the Romans left in 437 CE, came a thousand year period during which the real kingdom of Dalriada spanned the short 12 miles of the Northern Channel of the Irish sea, uniting the peoples of both islands. In the 5th century, Irish monks, along with the people of Dalriada, converted the pagans of Scotland to Christianity. These Christian Irish expanded and took over the entire west of Scotland and northern England (albeit some of the latter was with the Vikings who had founded Dublin).
The Gaelic language in Scotland today, (Gàidhlig or Erse), is the direct descendant of the Goidelic Gaelic of Ireland and Scotland of the Roman period and earlier. It is the same, one language.
Both cultures had clans and clan warfare, and didn’t see kings as having divine rights and deserving to be slavishly followed unquestioningly. The people of both regions were equally capable of murdering kings and chiefs and did so when greatly displeased by them. Neither had come up with the idea of repeating elections nor impeachment yet. Both peoples were accomplished herdsmen and fishermen and metal workers and used the same designs in metal work and other crafts, reflecting their shared religious and philosophical beliefs about the world about them. Both lived and confronted some of the least arable land and worst climates in the world–when almost 90% of all people in the world lived solely by farming and herding.
Religion, though, is only one part of any people’s culture, and the Christian religion is a MERE 2000 years old. Yet it is solely on the choice of religion and the few differences between the two sects of a CHRISTIAN religion that occurred only about 500 years ago, that these very Celtic brothers have been willing to murder, to discriminate on the basis of self-acclaimed ‘superiority’ in choice of religion. The major tenets of Christianity, such as a belief in commandments that came to Christianity from an earlier religion include ‘thou shalt not kill,’ ‘thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s goods (including lands, businesses, etc.)’. Both these religions claim to espouse these proscriptions, but they are consistently ignored by followers of Christ, Islam and Judaism alike. Where is the ‘love thy neighbor as thyself?‘ in anything that is being heard and done today in Northern Ireland? Neither Catholic nor Protestant seem to be very Christian to an objective observer.
The real irony is that, in the contrast to the discord in Northern Ireland or the electorate in the UK that voted for Brexit last year, the English monarchy, who initially set up most of these frictions, (particularly after the English King, Henry VIII, changed the religion to suit himself), is currently showing some leadership in greater tolerance. Prince Harry, with the consent of the queen and royal family, has set an example for all allegedly vehemently Christian, intolerant, bullying, warring Irish and Scots who seem to behave like ‘Cain and Abel’, by marrying a mixed-race American actress, Meghan Markle. Her ancestry also apparently includes both Scots and Irish–Protestants and Catholics alike!
Politicians, and voters, especially those with a stake in Northern Ireland, including Arlene Foster and Theresa May, should take note of this courageous leadership and honor their more recent agreements, like the recent agreement to maintain an open border, post Brexit, or risk their political futures or worse. We’re also guessing that if the break-down continues to worsen and bloody civil strife resumes, the Queen, and her successors, will ‘not be amused.’ Neither will many Americans who have mixed Scots and Irish, Protestant and Catholic heritage.
Email the authors Tony and Celia Becker at firstname.lastname@example.org
Theresa May and Leo Varadkar meet
Editorial: Brexit, The Border Deal, and the DUP
Some Progress, Some Obstacles, Some Hope
By Celia and Tony Becker – Published 2018-01-05
Just a month ago, after intense negotiations, United Kingdom Prime Minister Theresa May and European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker announced a formal written agreement between the UK and the EU to keep the border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland open, and to continue to uphold the Good Friday Agreement and human and civil rights in Northern Ireland.
Here are links to two videos of related press conferences that same weekend:
Theresa May On Brexit Negotiations… Irish border…Brussels…EU Deal – Dec 7, 2017
Just yesterday, Leo Varadkar, the Republic of Ireland’s Taoiseach (prime minister), spoke about the recent agreement between the EU and UK, regarding the borders of Northern Ireland and the limitations that Northern Ireland will, unfortunately, likely suffer as part of the non-EU, UK. For a related news article, Click Here. It is those limitations that, unfortunately, will continue to encourage greater U.S. and Silicon Valley investment in Dublin and the Irish Republican, rather than Belfast and Northern Ireland, or Glasgow and Scotland, as provinces of the non-EU, UK.
This new agreement between the UK and the EU is good news, but there is still bad news in Brexit. Tourists and business persons traveling between the two parts of the island of Ireland will continue to have to change money and the pound is weakening and will continue to weaken. Full trade between the UK–and Northern Ireland with the rest of Europe as freely as now is not guaranteed and the pound and the euro will no longer support one another. Of the two, the euro is now stronger. Our review of various media articles, this past week pointed out that the stronger euro is now enabling shopping sprees as Irish buy goods in the UK at bargain prices. For the U.S. this is a good thing for tourists traveling to Northern Ireland and Scotland, as the dollar is also weakening thanks to the financial uncertainty of this past year combined with the tax deal and increased deficit. The dollar isn’t weakening quite as much as the pound, so hotels and restaurants in northern Ireland and Scotland, already depressed areas of the UK, will continue to be a bargain.
If you are Scots or Northern Irish looking for jobs in the future, you may move to Ireland, or elsewhere in the EU. As minority citizens of the UK, your economic opportunities and trading rights are diminishing, yet again. The English supermajority in the UK Parliament appears to be focused entirely on the survival of the English, not caring about Scots or Scots-Irish. In fact, the English would rather your language, culture, separate identity all disappear and you simply become good little English men and women, in England. The travel and trade relations that currently exist between Ireland and Scotland are not guaranteed for the future, which also complicates tourist and business travel for many Americans who often plan trips to visit both areas when both are part of their heritage and interests.
With a population of about 50 million persons, the UK market is far smaller than the market of 450 million persons still in the EU, and the Venture Capitalists (VCs) and corporations, particularly from Silicon Valley, will likely find it more convenient and profitable to invest and set up offices and more in Ireland, France or Germany rather than the UK. Leaders from China recently illustrated the greater interest of a larger market by visiting the EU headquarters and pointedly ignoring London for potential trade deals, quite literally to replace the UK and the U.S., and publicly stated that.
DUP leader Arlene Foster Responds
Northern Ireland has another particular problem though, best exemplified by Arlene Foster and the Democratic Union Party that she heads. The DUP does not want union with the rest of Ireland, instead it wants only union with the UK. Fine, as far as most of Silicon Valley and the VC’s are concerned, then Northern Ireland can sink or swim with the UK. Foster’s anti-Republic, even anti-Catholic rhetoric does not help. Increasing religious-sectarian violence in the last few weeks and months since the Brexit vote and sometimes after Foster’s public comments, most recently last November, just before this new agreement was made, do not inspire confidence for the security and growth of either business investments or tourism.
Foster’s November comments lauding union with the UK as superior, reminds far too many Irish people, in Ireland, as well as in the global Irish diaspora, of the centuries of violence and repression on the basis of religion, in Ireland, particularly under the UK rule. The Queen of England is still the titular head of the Church of England, thus the UK still combines the institutions of church and state and that church is Protestant. That religious discrimination and related civil strife only ended in Northern Ireland 20 years ago with that Good Friday Agreement, and Foster’s November comments, absent any clarification, make the current peace appear shaky.
In our first hand experience, VC’s run from civil strife and discrimination and repression that have the potential to incite violence, especially when those VC’s have been born and raised, or lived long, in mostly Catholic, politically and socially liberal, racially diverse, California, a unified market by itself that is nearly 40 million persons and rapidly approaching the size of the UK.
Consider the events of the 1980 – 1990 in east and southeast Europe. When Tito died in Yugoslavia in 1980, and the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, several things happened. Romania’s last full-dictator, Nicolae Ceausescu, decided he could ignore the trends of the future and do one more act of genocide against Hungarians in Transylvania–repressing, even mass-murdering a minority that was once a majority in that part of what is now Romania. It was an act of intolerance and caused civil strife and threatened to cause multi-nation war, and he was executed on Christmas Day, 1989. The Serbians and Croatians took radically and violently different views of the entire Balkan peninsula, demonstrating violent intolerance of each other and Muslim Bosnians, who were ethnically and genetically related to everyone else in the former Yugoslavia. Many are blonde-haired and blue-eyed. The Balkan War lasted from 1991 – 2001. Slovakia decided it wanted to be less politically liberal and tolerant than the Czech half of Czechoslovakia and maintain communist style industrial management, limited democracy and accountability and separated from Czechoslovakia in January 1993.
Now consider, which parts of Europe have received the most investment, trade etc.? especially from Silicon Valley, (where something like 2/3 of all the VC’s in the U.S. live). It wasn’t Slovakia, Romania or the Balkan nations. To this day, these nations who demonstrated greater intolerance, violence and no accountability remain much less developed and have less international investment and trade. War, civil strife, discrimination, intolerance and exclusion are not good for trade, the free sale of goods and services, and full market development. Unfortunately for Northern Ireland, Arlene Foster and the DUP are, sounding and reading more like a potential for war and civil strife, and thus a limitation to economic growth.
Consider even in the U.S., where are the greatest investments and economic opportunities? Are they in the states where the KKK and Nazis are most active, where voter suppression laws are greatest, where there is still rampant discrimination against people of darker color, or in cities where there the murder rates are sky high? How do amounts and quality of investments in Oakland/Chicago, or Alabama/Mississippi compare with San Francisco/Atlanta or California/Massachusetts, etc.? Where do health insurance companies and health product manufacturing companies set up? Are they in small states whose governments really don’t care about the health care for the majority of their people and therefore are not much of even a local or regional market for health care services or products? Where do the majority of VC’s and corporate executives themselves choose to live?
So, what if Northern Ireland becomes a tiny, intolerant, violence-prone rogue province of a small country, and that itself is viewed as withdrawing from a much larger unified market? Or worse yet, why did the supermajority in the English part of the UK vote to withdraw–was some of that vote a racist reaction against emigration from less white, less Protestant Europeans, as well as darker skinned, non-Christian African countries?
We’ve heard and read statements by some UK officials, say how they intend to replace the unified market of the UK with a revival of the Commonwealth. Really? The Commonwealth was jettisoned a generation ago, and itself was a one-sided relic of colonialism. It was created by the English supermajority in the UK parliament and used the English banks, limitations on international access for investment or trade deals through England, to keep the nations under-developed, and the people of the Commonwealth nations poorer, relative to the English part of the UK. This was done nearly exactly as the English supermajority of the UK had been doing with Scotland and Ireland, then Northern Ireland since 1707. It is arrogant ethnocentrism and continues to this day. Listen to any speech of any representative of the Prime Minister and English supermajority parliament about the future of the UK. There will be no mention of development of the Celtic perimeter provinces, or the people, towns and cities within. They don’t exist, or should not exist, in the minds of most English or those who want to identify themselves as English. Have these UK officials asked the considerably less affluent, darker skinned peoples of the former Commonwealth how they feel about this plan? Don’t they think there are any televisions or cell phones that showed to the Africans the comments of pro-Brexit voters such as, “now the white Anglo-Saxon Brits can throw out all those darker-skinned peoples”, and signs in shops, etc., like, “Poles go home”?
Back in 1973, when Britain joined the EU, was the last time the Commonwealth existed as a somewhat unified economic entity. Most of the African and West Asian nations were still economic and financial colonies of the UK with no manufacturing, no other types of well-paid employment, besides government, and were providing little GDP but raw materials and some unprocessed agricultural products exported to the UK. They were no real market for much in the way of value-added UK goods, nor any other developed nation’s goods. Have the African and West Asian former colonies of the UK progressed that much to become better markets? Would the UK cut a better deal with the EU or the U.S. than the African and West Asian countries could do directly for and by themselves, and have been doing since 1973? Right now, the EU, and soon just the UK, has to compete with China, Japan, South Korea and the U.S. to buy raw materials and agricultural products from Africa and West Asia. With this competition, the latter now earn more money, even if they still don’t have much manufacturing. How does a return to an exclusive, dependent relationship with the UK improve people’s lives in Africa and West Asia, any more than in the last 44 years it’s improved the lives and economy of Scotland and Northern Ireland? We still have more immigration to the U.S. from Scotland and Northern Ireland than from the more populous England, precisely because so many Scots and Irish believe or see that they have more economic opportunities in the U.S. than in their own parts of the UK.
England (and the UK) have NO history, even within its government, of treating its native minority peoples in conquered formerly independent nations on its own islands fairly and equally. The U.S. still struggles with this, but has come a long way in the last 100 years. Unlike the U.S., the UK parliament does not have a balance of power of large and small population areas with two legislative houses, one of which is based on population and the principle of one man, one vote, and the the other in which states each elect the same number of ‘Senators.’ The districts for the House of Commons are uneven in population size and historically more MPs have come from English districts with the MP’s representing fewer people than the MP’s of Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. Realizing the UK has no states, but has counties and shires, if it had a second house similar to the U.S. Senate, it would have the same number of representatives for each county or shire. However, the reality is the UK has no bicameral parliament that balances the interests of the large and small population areas. This works to deny services, development and political influence of the lower population, mostly Celtic, areas. It was precisely because of the already evident discrimination, repression and denial of development and services to the Scots, Irish, Welsh, Cornish and northern English, in the 18th century that the founding fathers of the U.S., most of whom descended in large part from emigrants from these deprived areas, created the bi-cameral Congress as they did. The UK government, particularly the legislative, budget and money controlling Parliament remains skewed to the greater benefit of the larger, midland and southland, English population. Financial, economic, infrastructure and services policies and programs have all been crafted to work to encourage the other peoples the English have conquered to move to England and become good little Englishmen, subject to direct management and rule by these ‘real’ English.
Unlike what happened in the U.S. or other countries where manufacturing developed and continues closer to natural resources, and despite the fact that most of the UK’s mineral wealth, power grid, etc. is in places like Cornwall, Wales, northernmost England and Scotland, UK manufacturing industries were all set up further south and east, in the heartland of Anglo-Saxon England. Ports for trade and trading rights were also set up in England, and the ports of Scotland and Northern Ireland were deliberately limited to be fewer and smaller. Realizing there is a difference in geographic scale and just looking at political control, if the infrastructure of U.S. had been set up like the UK, the entire south and southeast of the U.S. would have one port, say at Houston, and likewise the entire west coast one port, say at Los Angeles.
Consider the prospect of a revived Commonwealth. With this UK history still in place in the current UK government, how would the peoples of Africa, India, West Asia gain any more benefit than the people of Scotland and Northern Ireland in any English-UK led restoration of the oxymoron ‘Commonwealth?’ For the rest of the world, for example, the U.S. and China, how much of a market would exist anywhere beyond the English area of the UK in the ‘Commonwealth?’ This is why U.S. and Chinese political and economic leaders are talking with the EU, and the large, former commonwealth nations of Africa and West Asia, and not the UK. They will do their utmost to discourage Nigeria, Iraq, Pakistan, India, South Africa and more from re-establishing the Commonwealth. This is why if, or as, the UK declines, the minority regions of Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales will suffer more and be of yet less interest to international investment and trade.
What we hear and read among business persons and VC’s in Silicon Valley is caution: don’t invest in northern Ireland or the UK until we know what the final deal is and how much of an economic relationship with the EU is really retained. We also hear and read caution about investment, travel and trade after increasing expressions and demonstrations of intolerance and exclusion. We hear and read from some who are not going to wait and see, saying, “why bother dealing with the uncertainty of any part of the UK, and for years on end, when you have Ireland which speaks English, is still in the EU, and whose leaders and voters are supporting tolerant, inclusive policies?” The international corporate world is a world of stock markets that want results to price shares every quarter. They are not going to wait for years for the UK to create and implement their new separate trade and economic development plans and hope that the UK can deliver on its vague promises to create a new, larger ‘Commonwealth’ market that may or may not replace what already exists as the EU. Ireland, as part of the EU, benefits from the withdrawal of the UK from the EU, which continues to be a 450 million person unified market.
Editorial: Ireland’s Future
Biotech and Pharmaceuticals
By Cecilia Fábos-Becker – Published 2017-11-10
Last week, Leo Varadkar, the Taoiseach (Prime Minister) of Ireland, visited the Bay area and spoke at a reception at San Francisco City Hall. He was actually in the area for a few days and also visited some high technology companies, undoubtedly looking for additional investments in and joint ventures with Irish companies. The three mentioned in his speech were the usual high visibility companies, Apple, Google and Facebook, all existing companies dominant in their fields. Because these three are all proverbial 800 pound gorillas in their field, with little competition (though Apple has more than the others) these companies can demand–and get–subsidies and tax discounts whereever they locate their facilities. They promise jobs, but at what cost to the communities and states in which they are? Who pays for the infrastructure they need and use in their facilities, the roads, railroads and airports to get people, raw materials and products moved to and fro, the services like fire, police, clean water, waste water removal and treatment and more? Has anyone told the Taoiseach that in their home state and country, these three are at the top of the list of large corporations who pay next to nothing in taxes? Has Ireland forgotten the problems with the U.S. and the UK in favoring Apple and the insufficient returns to Ireland for taking that large risk?
Of the three gorilla / tax-dodgers, only Google, through it’s parent Alphabet, provides significant public value through its search engine and content that links researchers to data, and shoppers with sellers, and more. Alphabet also has a division/arm that does much more research, development and experimentation beyond computing and communications, such as driverless cars and meat grown in labs minimal environmental impact and without slaughtering animals. Facebook is a marketing and social connecting tool, but it has a real public downside providing a platform for bad attitudes, ignorance and negative behavior of a large percentage of its users to the point that, like the Usenet of old and Yahoo groups before, it is increasingly driving people away, rather than attracting new users. Marketing of anything on Facebook, whether it be products, or ideas and news, has become suspect because of shoddy products, scams, and fake domestic news (myths, rumors lies to harm someone or persuade someone to do something) not to mention globalized propaganda and manipulations.
Google has two other aspects that make it the most useful of the three. Google has published out of print books and other materials on-line, making more content available to researchers than might otherwise never have been. At least one founder of Google and his ex-wife are also interested in modern medicine and modern medical technologies, such as stem cell work, ways to optimize treatment for genetic related illnesses by basing the treatment on what works best for people of differing sexes, races, ethnicities, and DNA.
As the developed nations look to cut health care costs and improve quality of life, this move to outcome based treatments–and payments–optimal standards and health care, data and products, that are correlated to DNA are among the coming high technologies coming of age today. Many of these companies in this fledgling industry are NOT YET gorillas able to command subsidies and huge tax breaks. Yet these jobs require high levels of education and pay well such as Ireland’s colleges provide and to which most of its people aspire. Many of the products will be in pharmaceuticals, which does not require a lot of raw materials. Other small countries like Switzerland and Austria have prospered in part with pharmaceutical companies.
Ireland, though, has one other advantage that should encourage its leaders to look at more biotech and pharmaceuticals as future industries for and in Ireland, with well paid jobs. Ireland is still a largely homogenous country and it shares a large amount of DNA with Scotland, and the diaspora of both the closely related Scots and Irish are in Canada, Australia, New Zealand–and the greater UK, and the U.S.. If companies want to create products for optimal medical practices and treatments that are saleable to the largest most homogenous groups who are also the most affluent, then the people of Irish and Scottish descent are among the top markets, if not the top. Over one-half of the U.S., that is 160 million persons have a third or more of their DNA as the closely related Irish, Scots and Scots-Irish. Studies have recently shown that even England, and its 50 millions are now mostly a quarter or more Irish, because of all the Irish emigrants to England when investment was done in developing and modernizing industries and their facilities and manufacturing equipment only in England and not in Ireland, and only minimally in Scotland and Northern Ireland. What works well for the smaller populations of Ireland and Scotland, should work well for large parts of the UK and US populations. Additionally, unlike the UK and U.S., Ireland also has fewer levels of government and related bureacracy, permits, fees, taxes, etc. for developing bio-tech companies whose products target the Irish, Scottish, and their diaspora descended populations in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the UK and the U.S..
Consider personal genomics and biotechnology company 23andMe, and its pharmaceutical industry clients who are purchasing both DNA tests–and well-documented family histories. The latter has been found important for showing the effects of changes of environment on DNA over centuries. To do this, first you need to identify families, for multiple generations, then determine where they were and how they generally lived. The world was mostly agrarian until the 20th century, including the U.S.. Most of the data we’ve been using up to now has been from cities and towns–less than 20% of the population of the nations, and much more mixed than the more rural and small town populations. Also pollution was a greater factor and earlier in cities. To study what makes people the way they are now, means first knowing what the majority were like back then in different circumstances from now.
No nation has been without international war and civil war, but of nations more than a couple of centuries old, the UK and Ireland have had a greater amount of vital records survive, though in Ireland, they are more scattered. What the Irish government and medical researchers may not realize, though, Irish records are not as completely “gone” government officials and researchers once thought, as a result of the PRO explosion. Yes, most of the civil census records of the 1800’s were lost. However, there were church records identifying families in parishes at various times, cemetery records, tithe applotment records, and more. It turns out that most people had copies of wills, contracts and court decisions, and land records in their families–in the estate collections, many of which have survived. The estate records identified and covered all transactions with TENANT families, neighbors and many others. Also priests and ministers sometimes made copies of parish records and the Catholic records were not sent to the PRO. None of the deeds, including leases that were filed in the Registry of Deeds since 1707 have been destroyed and they identify family members across generations connected to specific lands and areas.
Ireland could contract with Google to get all the remaining records organized, indexed, digitized and on-line, so family history and medical researchers can access and study them to help develop those accurate family histories to help develop optimal medical treatments for families–and individuals within them, to help understand why siblings and branches of families get illnesses and respond differently to treatments than others in the same immediate or extended family. By Ireland doing this, it might also finally inspire all the U.S. states that existed before 1850 to do the same. Now you have a complete data base of up to 500 years or more of families that have the greatest shared DNA to really pinpoint optimal treatments and know why they are for a population of over 250 million persons in the combination of generally affluent Ireland, Scotland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand–and the UK and U.S..
Ireland can also to encourage its people to cooperate with the three largest DNA testing companies to create a significant database of DNA to study, along with the histories, and so help connect their diaspora with their Irish roots. Of over 7 billion people, the combined world-wide, DNA data base numbers just 10 million. Of that under 10 million, most of the DNA tests have been done in the U.S., mostly among people of European and African descent. The U.S. is only 200 years old as a nation and at most its Irish and Scottish ancestry-heavy people have not quite 400 years of DNA evolution here. Most descendants U.S. ancestry have between 100 and 300 years. 160 million or more of them are a third or more of Scots, Irish and Scots-Irish descent. How else do you link that 300 million total, U.S. citizens and legal residents, to the older, more homogenous DNA, to families elsewhere, but particularly Ireland and the UK? How else do you create optimal bio-medical products, technologies and services for that large potential market and know to whom to sell the products and services?
Everyone wants good health, the best possible, the longest healthiest life, and to have effective diagnostics and the most optimal treatments and all at the most reasonable costs. Outcome based optimal treatments based on individual and family history and DNA–large data bases of both–is a key to nations providing this. Ireland can be a leader in the development of modern optimal outcome based on DNA medical products, in one very large, and world-wide, the most AFFLUENT DNA market, if it wants to be, sees the opportunities and then pursues them.
Taoiseach of Ireland, Leo Varadkar
Remarks of Dr. Leo Varadkar
Taoiseach (Prime Minister) of Ireland
Hosted by Robert O’Driscoll, Consul-General of Ireland
for the Western US and Ed Lee, Mayor of San Francisco
By Tony Becker – Published 2017-11-03
On Thursday evening, November 2, 2017 between 6 and 8 PM, a reception was held for the new Taoiseach (Prime Minister) of Ireland, Dr. Leo Varadkar the Taoiseach (Prime Minister) of Ireland, in the Rotunda at San Francisco, CA, City Hall. The Irish flag was flying on the Civic Center Plaza side of the building and the exterior was lit up with green lighting.
The event was attended by about 300 members of the Bay Area Irish community, including members of the United Irish Cultural Center, the United Irish Societies of San Francisco, the Irish Literary and Historical Society, the San Jose-Dublin Sister Cities Program’s board members, AmeriCeltic.net, San Francisco city employees and many more Irish community organization members.
Consul-General of Ireland
For the Western US
San Francisco has a sister cities relationship with Cork, Ireland and the Mayor of San Francisco, Ed Lee and the San Francisco-Cork Sister Cities committee had just returned from a visit to Ireland. Thus so the evening began with Mayor Lee’s warm welcome and thanks for the hospitality he received on his Irish trip.
Ambassador of Ireland
Taking the podium from Mayor Lee, Consul-General Robert O’Driscoll further surprised the assembly by introducing Ireland’s Ambassador to the United States, Daniel Mulhall, just arrived from Washington DC. Mulhall made a few remarks about the importance Ireland places on its relationship with America in general, and the West Coast in particular, and then in turn introduced Dr. Varadkar.
This occasion marked Mr. Varadkar’s very first official visit to the U.S. as Taoiseach, and San Francisco and the Bay area were honored by being the first places in the U.S. he chose to visit, as per the speeches of the Mayor of San Francisco, the Consul General and the Taoiseach. Earlier in the day, Dr. Varadkar had visited Google, Apple and Facebook, south of San Francisco.
Taoiseach Dr. Varadkar began his remarks by describing the substantive changes that have taken place in Irish society in the few years since the great recession, and went on to relate this to his personal career. “Earlier in the day, I took the opportunity to visit the statue of former San Francisco Supervisor Harvey Milk that stands here in this building.” and, “I know that I would not have had the opportunity of becoming the first LGBT Taoiseach of Ireland without the courage and leadership of people like Supervisor Milk”.
Dr. Varadkar spoke about the long and deep relationship between Ireland and San Francisco and the Bay area, noting that the relationship is over 170 years old, and that several early mayors of San Francisco had been born in Ireland. Taoiseach Varadkar reminded the crowd that Ireland particularly values its relationship with America. Ireland has long been the gateway to the European Union for American business, and most of the Irish diaspora is in the U.S.
He also noted that over 550 U.S. companies, including many from the SF Bay area, have divisions or branches in Ireland and employ 140,000 Irish, and 430 Irish companies are throughout the U.S. in turn and employ 100,000 Americans, including 25,000 in California. He is looking to increase these relationships into the future. Dr. Varadkar concluded by expressing great thanks for Ireland’s support among the Irish diaspora, and in particular to the many such in the audience, and promising continued its support.
UK Consul-General, Andrew Whittaker
New UK Consul-General, Andrew Whittaker
Remarks and Discussion of Monday, October 16th, 2017, 7:30 PM
Saint Andrew’s Society of San Francisco, 1088 Green St, San Francisco
by Cecilia Fabos-Becker – Published 2017-10-20
On Monday, October 16, 2017 the new (since August, 2016) Consul General for the United Kingdom, Andrew Whittaker, spoke at the St. Andrew’s Society of San Francisco monthly meeting in the evening at its Green Street building. The meeting was sparsely attended, mostly due to a number of persons being affected by the wildfires and the still smoky air in and near San Francisco.
Consul Whittaker, began by introducing himself and his personal history. Much of it is in his official biography here: Andrew Whittaker Biography. Whittaker graduated from Cambridge with a Master’s degree in Political and Social Sciences and went directly into employment in the foreign service. Though partly of Welsh ancestry, he grew up in England, and has been an avid rugby player. His previous two decades of experience included assignments in Jerusalem (Israel) for which he prepared by spending 18 months learning Arabic, and Basra, Iraq related to UK military activities there, and Spain. He then was the Deputy Secretary for Crisis Management in the Foreign Office in London, and most recently has been involved in cybersecurity issues for the UK government and industries.
He then spoke about a few issues he considered to be of greatest mutual interest to his Scottish audience. In his speech, and conversations with members, he stated several times his interest in Artificial Intelligence and Cyber Security, particularly in promoting investment in the UK by U.S. companies involved in these and in joint ventures, and sales of UK Cyber Security products to the U.S. He said that, of particular interest, the UK hopes to increase trade relations with the US, and as Brexit evolves, minimize the impact of Brexit on UK workers; keeping their employment up.
He spoke about Brexit as a slowly developing situation with on-going negotiations, still, on basic issues, such as the border of Northern Ireland. He said that It is not in the interest of the UK to restore border crossings and limits, but there is yet no resolution of this matter in the UK-EU negotiations. Scotland was not mentioned, at all.
Thus, it prompted a question from your editors: “Wouldn’t it be simpler to help Northern Ireland reunite with Ireland and grant Scotland dominion status, to both maintain some control and relationships with Scotland yet allow Scotland enough independence to become a member of the EU as its citizens wish?”
Mr. Whittaker’s brief response was, that Scotland had already visited the Independence question, and had to voted to remain. The inference we editors took was, that if Scotland has any interest in another independence referendum, they will not have the cooperation of the UK Foreign Office and current PM. It does not matter that the September 2014 vote to remain in the UK was influenced by the UK officials stating that if Scotland were to vote for independence the UK would block Scotland’s separate EU membership. At that time the UK was firmly in the EU; now it is leaving. The Scots voted in September, 2014, to remain in the UK, end of discussion.
Mr. Whittaker explained that the leadership in London believes it can resume its former trade agreements with the members of the Commonwealth that they mostly had to drop when the UK joined the EU in 1973, and that the UK continues to have superior relations with African, Middle East and Asian nations. He stated that he believed the relations that the UK has, and will strengthen after Brexit, would be of benefit to those U.S. industries, and, he implied Scottish industries also, wanting to develop greater and better relations with Asian, African and Mid Eastern countries.
Articles on-line, however, indicate that in the past 44 years and counting, the Commonwealth countries never had unified trade policies, and have, according to their own interests, developed greater trading relationships with, their regional trading partners, such as the U.S., China, or other nations in Africa. Analytical writers of those articles believe it may be difficult for the UK to resume the lead and unify the Commonwealth, and restore the trading relations it once had, which favored the UK, particularly England, and were originally crafted when many of these nations were still colonies of the UK. It has been noted that, of the English speaking nations, for instance, Canada has been developing close ties with the U.S. in the past several decades, and Australia and New Zealand with one another and with Singapore and India. India has been developing greater technology industry and trade relationships with the U.S.. Even South Africa has been developing stronger relationships with the U.S., since South Africa ended apartheid.
Mr. Whittaker also stated that the UK believes there will be no significant loss of the financial industry in the UK as Brexit actually occurs. He suggested that the sophistication and shared English language of the London financial district, will continue to make London more attractive to the U.S. financial industry than any other location. He pointed out that although the pound against the U.S. dollar dropped significantly from a ratio of 1.5 dollars to the pound to 1.2 dollars to the pound after the initial Brexit vote, the pound has strengthened somewhat and leveled off at about 1.3 dollars to the pound, and he believed that as the process evolved, the pound would continue to strengthen. He also noted, that to date, no significant Brexit issues have been settled. Probably, little will be agreed upon until the last two or three months before the actual departure date of March, 2019.
It seems strange to us that, we have heard two such very different views about the financial sector from the UK and Irish Consuls in the last several months. We then suggested to Mr. Whittaker might want to discuss with his Irish counterpart the building boom in Dublin, Ireland, and all the buildings near Wood Quay that have been rented and the rising rents. The Irish Consul and rest of his government, you see, have stated they are already seeing a greater interest by the U.S. and other countries in increasing development of the financial industry in Ireland, as the Irish also speak English and Ireland is remaining in the EU, precisely for the overall EU financial relationships. Mr. Whittaker indicated he was in contact with his Irish counterpart and would continue to be.
As the meeting drew to a close, questions were asked about tourism to Scotland, and the possibility of more advertising and travel programs, targeting Scottish and Irish descent audiences in the U.S., and whether tourism and travel generally were now under the new Department of International Trade. Whittaker said that the new department does not cover the travel and tourism industry, and questions related to tourism and travel are all handled by “Visit Britain,” an entirely separate organization. Based on its website, which we later skimmed through, ‘Visit Britain‘ may not be a part of the UK government. Its domain name, visitbritain.com, ends in top-level domain, ‘.com’ indicating a commercial website.
We, the editors of this newsletter, are hoping to have further discussions in other meetings with Mr. Whittaker regarding Scotland and the interests of Scot and Scot-Irish descended Americans who might be interested in travel and study related to their heritage and culture, as well as investments directed more so to Scotland, especially as Brexit evolves.
Pitfalls for Members of Facebook Groups
Friends, Groups, Private Messages and Privacy (nor NOT)
by Cecilia Fabos-Becker – Published 2017-10-06
Human Beings are social creatures who want to communicate and share. They especially want to share things and ideas they really like and often will form groups around them, such as non-profit services, clubs, or professional groups like bands that perform music. Some people like some things, ideas and such so much, they form businesses that are interests-based, such as ethnic culture and heritage.
In recent years, we’ve all been happy to have increased means of and tools for communication and an extended electronic reach to share our interests whether they be a non-profit service, or support for a for profit group, such as a band or a shop, with such things Social Media apps or tools to use it better for communications and marketing. I use Outlook and other programs for emails and personal contacts, and both I and my spouse use Facebook. It’s much faster than snail mail, easier to sort lists of sub groups of friends or markets, but, like snail mail, it allows the intended recipients or readers to decide to open, or toss, something or ignore it, and isn’t as intrusive as telephone calls which to be effective have to get past an answering machine, especially when deadlines are looming.
However, to our dismay, we recently discovered that Facebook has a number of ‘glitchs’ in a significant, relatively new ways.
It’s an important one that everyone who has joined more than one Facebook Group should be aware of. Likewise anyone who any affiliation with a non-profit or professional entity of his or her own, and is hoping friends will support shared interests, activities and events, and not just the programs put on for or by these separate groups.
Facebook states in its own policy statements and press releases that it is a tool and service that is meant to facilitate communication, sharing and marketing, for all kinds of people and groups (including those using more than one service), within the free platform users have voluntarily ‘boarded‘ called “Facebook.” On board Facebook, primarily using the concept of establishing on-line, as well as often in-person, friendships. Facebook allows Sales and marketing by any and individual persons and groups for both for profit and non-profit causes and events. Sharing is allowed, not only with people you already know, perhaps from some other prior experiences, but also those who have “friended” you as individuals or through groups. You may believe a ‘friend’ will like something or someone, expand their interests and support them. Nearly everyone shares, (markets and communicates) to expand their groups of friends and supporters and support for the things, and people, that interest them. Facebook’s mission clearly states that the company and its programs exist to do both and both are specifically allowed.
Facebook is, to a certain extent, like a ship bound for a certain destination. When you board it, you agree you want to go there, also, even though you don’t own the ship and don’t control it. You only control how you, yourself, interact with it and others on the same ship. The ship company owns the ship and the captain, hired by the ship-owner, controls its operation.
It is one’s understanding, or failure to understand, these basics of Facebook that creates the most pitfalls for Facebook users–whether they are individuals or groups. There are also conflicts among the services and programming to perform the services, and what they allow to be done by and/or for users, as individuals and groups, while trying to retain a certain amount of privacy for people who have already accepted this is a platform to communicate and share, and have boarded it.
Here are just a few examples of Facebook policy, lawful use and legal terms statements from 2015 to present:
“You own all of the content and information you post on Facebook, and you can control how it is shared through your privacy and application settings.”
“Facebook offers a wide variety of products and services, including communications and advertising platforms. Many of these products and services — such as the Facebook mobile app, _Messenger_, and Paper — are part of your Facebook experience. ”
“Groups provide a space to communicate about shared interests with certain people. You can create a group for anything — your family reunion, your after-work sports team, your book club — and customize the group’s privacy settings depending on who you want to be able to join and see the group.”
(Regarding events or items of interest to one member that said member wants to share with others)
“Depending on the size of your group, you’ll either be able invite all members of your group or invite all your friends in the group.”
This being the crucial one, we invite you to look it up for yourself. Buried deep in Facebook’s Help screens, at the URL: https://www.facebook.com/help/1210322209008185/?helpref=hc_fnav and at the very bottom of the page, you will find the very last topic “Can I message members of a group if they are not my friends?”
and you can find this answer:
“All members of a group can chat together in group messages, even if they’re not all friends with each other. However, only friends can message each other individually and start a one-on-one conversation.”
Do you see the potential for misunderstandings and conflicts here? The last two items are especially important for persons who share interests with multiple groups’ members and might have events, persons, or things to promote, either for profit or not. It is especially a potential source of conflict for those who are members of MULTIPLE groups, for example, a musical performer and/or Band. Even if you are part-time and earn most of your daily bread in some other occupation, pay attention, what just happened to us, can happen to YOU.
We discovered this Facebook glitch the hard way and informed them of it afterwards. The glitch is in the last two quotes, particularly the last one. If you are a member of group and want to message other groups about an event that interests you and you think might interest them, you may indeed, according to Facebook’s policies, send a private message your fellow group members. At the same time, the Facebook “messenger/messaging” process of limits you to enter each individual names one at at time, and allegedly will prevent you from accidentally listing on your “to” line/block those in the group who have not ‘friended’ you. But this limitation only applies SOME of the time. As Facebook says, groups of a certain size, which we have now observed seems to be any group with under 50 members. Yet, even within groups of smaller size, this implied bit of programming to help you as a message sender avoid accidentally offending someone who is not a friend only works, SOME times–even within a single list of a subset of group members who you believe are your ‘friends’, because at some point, a group chat among all members of a group is allowed REGARDLESS of whether they are all ‘friends’! In the face of accusations that we deliberately sent something to people who are not in some way our friends, we literally spent several days figuring out what had happened and how to avoid it in the future.
This glitch quickly resulted a very unwelcome reminder of the negative social aspects of adolescence. We’re still waiting for a response from Facebook – Does anyone know a Facebook Executive out there we can ping in some way?
For many people, including bands and small businesses who are members of many groups, you are now literally going to have to do as we did and check all your Facebook friends lists of every group to which you belong or Facebook generally, which can amount to thousands. You will have to check your professional page ‘friends’ lists as well as your individual page(s) friends lists–spouses and other family members included. You will have to check your Outlook or other personal contacts data base to verify that you are somehow otherwise friends, (since most such contact programs are meant to somewhat work together these days) to verify who all are really your friends someway or not to DEFEND yourself against the occasional accusation that you deliberately sent something to people who are not in some way a friend of yours.
In particular, it took us hours to try to send what we thought was a personal group message using Facebook’s Messenger service, to a small but select subset of friends from a group to which Tony belonged. It took us days to go through the 5,000 Facebook friends through several groups and our own Facebook Pages, and the many thousands more contacts in our Outlook database as well as and internet group contacts we have–that are still people with whom we occasionally communicate or see, to figure out just how few people we might have actually offended. (Precisely 6 individuals).
We operate a weeklyy newsletter with over 3000 subscribers, and an events calendar with thousands of users. For heaven’s sake, our AmeriCeltic services are intended to to cover/promote the interests of all the several Celtic ethnicities, and to have a large and expanding outreach to thousands more! Celia has spent 45 years doing and networking information about family history. In just the last five or six years, we have over 10,000 email addresses on just four extended families/clans from members of internet groups, let alone our thousands of Facebook ‘friends’!
So people, read all of the policy and services statements of Facebook, watch the news to keep up with their constant experimentation to expand or improve services of ITS platform or ship which we all voluntarily boarded to use their services. Be aware of the contradictions, limitations and glitches–and do not assume that all messaging that you didn’t want to receive, and may not have set your own privacy settings to exclude was intentional on the part of the sender. Last, if you group or society that has a group page on Facebook has a policy limiting kinds or frequencies of communications or posting–SAY SO, in writing on the group page and in your other public internet postings about your society and its goals, objectives, and LIMITATIONS and don’t slam someone for accidentally violating polices that were not publicized as that person could not have known. The acceptable response would be for an officer to politely send a letter or email to the parties involved.
Facebook, and the other “ships” (social media platforms) using the internet to communicate are all still ‘under-construction’, with changes being made on a daily basis. Be aware of that. it is good practice to read more, and when you realize how much you have to read, know and understand, to withhold any complaint and instead think about how easy it is to miss something, and stumble into a glitch. What might have been a nice experience or relationship can easily turn into ashes! Let’s all hope Facebook fixes a few more of these glitches to make it easier to create and maintain pleasant or successful relationships, or both.
Editorial: Shopping at Celtic Festivals
One Persons Perspective – Spring 2017
by Cecilia Fabos-Becker – 2017-05-19
When hosting at a Celtic festival booth, it’s often difficult to get a break, much less have time to browse through the vendor areas thoughtfully. As my husband Tony takes more questions from folks asking whether they are Scots, Irish, Welsh, English or some mixture thereof, as most usually are, from the books and maps we bring, last weekend, I got a chance finally to spend a little time browsing the small but good selection of vendors at the Silicon Valley Irish Flead, in Mountain View. On a budget, I especially appreciate vendors that have beautiful, unusual work, whether it be in fabric, leather or jewelry, and priced under $50, or even $30!
In more than 20 years of hosting, I’d seen a lots of gifts at the many Scottish and Irish festivals and when you are hurrying, the unusual stands out. For some years, stand outs have been rare. Quite a number of vendors have the mass produced silver claddagh rings (two hands holding a heart) and the same few styles of earrings and pendants using a few of the variations of Celtic knots. It’s almost all real sterling and good quality but, well, there is a lot of it, and a lot looks the same. It’s also almost all produced outside of the U.S. in large factories, though blessedly, not a lot has a “made in China” label on it.
There are a few vendors who have started appearing in recent years who are different. For a long time for higher cost unusual Celtic and art-nouveau style jewelry, collectors and Celtic-fashionistas at some festivals have long appreciated “Postgate Jewelers“, a small design and self-manufacturing studio up near Truckee, California. It’s been awhile since I’ve been able to afford their gorgeous gold work, but I certainly admire it every time I see them at a festival, and on others. You can recognize a Postgate piece at a distance. They are that good, but so is the price. “Nagle Forge & Foundry” has a unique mixture of higher and medium cost, unique designs all done in house. I once bought an unusual belt buckle there. I absolutely loved for its combination curves and waves design, and being just the right size for a woman’s belt. At the Silicon Valley Irish Fleadh, though, I finally had a chance to spend some time examining the displays of three more vendors, newer, primarily jewelry, who do some or most of their own design work and either their own manufacture, or work closely with small, U.S. designer-manufacturers. I also revisited a more unusual gifts vendor whose wares attracted me from the first time I saw them at the Ardenwood Historic Farm Park Tartan Day in early April. All of these vendors will be at the San Francisco Caledonian Club Gathering and Games at the Alameda County Fairgrounds at Pleasanton in early September 2017, and several will be at the Costa Mesa Gathering and Games in southern California on the Memorial Day weekend. Some will also be at smaller festivals such as the Mother Lode Scottish Festival at the Amador County fairgrounds in the small town of Plymouth along Highway 49, on June 10-11, and either Reno or Big Trees (Felton) the second weekend in October.
For those who are looking for different new designs in affordable jewelry, locally made, often with gems, I urge you to spend a little time looking at the offerings of “Willow Jewelry“ and “Phoenix and Crow.” Both have excellent jewelry designs using Celtic themes, art-nouveau and some what I’d call art-deco elements; elegant jewelry that suggests nature and classic historic design, and uses gems in addition to metals, mostly silver. I have a collection of jewelry history and design books and used to design jewelry a little when I had my own store, so I’m not just tossing around these descriptions lightly.
Willow specializes in unusual, natural, gem stones, but you will see some of these, colorful, less commonly seen gems at Phoenix and Crow also, and a few at A&A, in the next paragraph. Willow does all of her own design and manufacture. Bev Rafferty of Phoenix and Crow does some design herself but mostly works with others who then produce the items in their own facilities, in the U.S. and some, locally. I especially liked the collections of rainbow moonstone and labradorite (mineralogical siblings of kind) rings at Phoenix and Crow. Some had an art-deco look, some were set in art-nouveau vines and leaves style of ring mounting. She also had some stones set in an unusual thistle design ring mounting. Phoenix and Crow, also had an unusual collection of hand-made cast-iron “Thor’s Hammer” pendants, and Viking design small piece pottery, offering dishes or candle holders, also locally made. At Willow’s booth, I saw several pendants and a gorgeous pair of rose quartz drop earrings that had me lingering at, and then returning to her booth, as well as her gorgeous Venezuelan amethyst jewelry. I used to own a jewelry shop myself 15 years ago and it’s been awhile since I’ve seen natural amethyst that nice. (An awful lot of good colored amethyst, the really purple stones, these days, isn’t: it’s Chinese made jewelry glass or else irradiated inferior quartz, originally another color). Willow also had a cute collection of hand-puppets for children and adults who have children in their families they like to entertain made by Folkman’s Puppets, including dragons! The puppets and jewelry work well to keep the attention of both parents and children. There were families lingering by this vendor’s booth.
Another vendor that doesn’t have jewelry but has a lot of colorful, original Celtic legend/ mythology themed designs that also use Celtic knotwork, on T-shirts, handbags/tote bags, change purses/small wallets, glicee wall art and even small jigsaw puzzles, is “Celtic Art Studio” owned by Jan Delwyth. On my first visit, I bought a t-shirt and a jigsaw puzzle. I live with a budget and don’t usually find myself making a snap decision like this. The color and design were absolutely just right to go with about four pairs of my favorite colors in pants and a couple of skirts. Even my even more fiscally conservative husband understood the appeal of this one. I heard a number of persons complimenting this vendor and the very beautiful unusual designs of her merchandise, and reasonable prices, at both the Tartan Day festival and the Fleadh.
A&A Company once had its own shop in the Stanford Shopping Mall. The couple who own this little company now travel to major weekend festivals around the U.S., and they sell on Etsy. designer Anita McKenzie, was not present at the Silicon Valley Fleadh, her husband was the sole salesperson that weekend, Anita does some of her own design and limited self-manufacture. Those were the best items at the A&A booth and caught my attention at once. (Most of what A&A had was built by someone else). Anita’s husband explained that they once owned their own manufacturing facility as well as having their brick-and-mortar store, but it got to be too much as they got older and rents and other costs escalated. Some of her designs are not mass manufactured and may be made by local craftspersons, but some is clearly supplied by the same manufacturers who supply a number of other festival vendors, particularly the rings that were being sold. A&A’s best and most unusual pieces bore Anita’s own label, “Anita McKenzie” (Watch for that label). I saw several very striking pairs of paua or abalone shell earrings with Celtic knotwork or classic scroll and vine work around the pieces of shell and some very nice, bright red jasper earrings with similar work. These all were eye-catching at a distance. She had also some nice clusters, and drop earrings, like leaves on a vine, of faceted garnets, and earrrings and pendants using blue topaz and iolite (a natural stone similar to sapphires in color).
So, when you are visiting and enjoying the Scottish and Irish festivals throughout the year, and know you have birthdays, Mother’s Day, Valentine’s Day and Christmas gifts needs coming up, and don’t have a fortune to spend, keep these vendors in mind and look for them. They’ll appreciate it when you do, and your intended recipients will love you for the beautiful and unusual gifts you buy to give them–and your bank account will probably still have something in it at the end of the day.
MEP Martina Anderson
Brexit Progress and Movements by Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland
by Cecilia Fábos-Becker and Anthony Becker
Published April 7th, 2017
Like their cousins in Northern Ireland, Scotland voted decisively to remain in the European Union (EU) in the Brexit vote of last June. Recently, the UK Parliament decided not to hold a second vote on their exit from the EU (Brexit).
On Tuesday, March 14th, 2017, Martina Anderson, member of the EU Parliament for Northern Ireland, told the EU assembly that any border between Northern Ireland and Ireland was unacceptable in unequivocable terms: ‘Theresa (May) … stick (a border) where the sun don’t shine because you’re not putting it in Ireland.’ Ms. Anderson’s expressed sentiments may be extreme, but it seems impossible to find anyone on Erin’s isle who favors a new internal border.
Just ten days ago, on Tuesday, March 28th the Scottish Parliament passed a motion to authorize Scotland’s First Minister, Nicola Sturgeon, to negotiate with the UK parliament for a second referendum on full Scottish independence, to be put to a vote within the next 2 years. On Wednesday, March 29th, the government of the United Kingdom delivered the official “letter of divorce” to the EU, a process which by statue, must be completed within the same 2 years. Most observers expect this second Scottish Independence Referendum to succeed.
Over these last 4 years, there have been many talks between the UK’s Royal Family and Northern Irish leadership, particularly the Sinn Fein party leadership. When former First Minister of Northern Ireland Martin McGuinness died on March 21, 2017, Queen Elizabeth II sent a note of ‘personal condolence’ to his widow. There is a growing sense that soon Northern Ireland and Ireland will merge. Ireland has demonstated that it is separating the policies of the Catholic Church from government policy, and in turn Catholics have gained greater political and economic rights in the north. Ireland has a strong economy, and all see trade as the matter of most importance for both.
If Northern Ireland became economically separate from the rest of the island, Northern Ireland, would be dependent, once again, upon relations solely with England and the Commonwealth, which were disastrous the last time Northern Ireland was so limited, after the passage of the Act of Union of 1707. After 1707, Northern Ireland was limited primarily to exporting raw materials and semi-finished products to English manufacturers who, in their turn, sold the high-value-added finished goods back to the Irish, and the price of goods produced in Northern Ireland plumetted. This resulted in the emigration of a large part of the Northern Irish population, particularly to what became the U.S.A. In the 20th century, Northern Ireland struggled with civil strife, which devastated the economy and discouraged trade and investment. It is only in the last 20 years, since the Good Friday Agreement, that Northern Ireland has overcome the centuries of dependency and strife, and with the ‘Leave’ vote of the majority of English voters, Brexit threatens to yank the new floor from beneath Northern Ireland’s feet.
Northern Irelands citizens do not want to return to these burdens of the past, and in our opinion, this makes the unification of Ireland inevitable. As part of the Republic, Northern Ireland can retain its trade with the EU, and Ireland can join NATO, which may provide additional stimuli to the economy of all of Ireland as a full, supporting NATO member.
As for Scotland, the issues that prevented passage of the last independence referendum have changed. The threat that if Scotland voted for independence the UK would make it difficult for Scotland to join the EU is moot if the UK leaves the EU. This leaves one other former issue: Scotland’s financial footing. The threat that if Scotland voted for independence the UK would make it difficult for Scotland to use the Euro as its monetary system, limiting Scotlands ability to make and sell enough goods to provide revenue for services, is also moot.
There are several things Scotland could do. First it must remember that Scotland is no smaller than many of the smaller, successful countries in Europe in geography and population. If Slovenia, the Czech Republic, Croatia, and Austria can survive and thrive, so can Scotland. Neither land area or population are determinants of success or failure of small nations. Over nearly two centuries, Ireland and Scotland, have both been artificially deprived of manufacturing investment by the UK, dominated by England and English interests. For 30 years, Ireland has been attracting more investment than Scotland and doing generally well with it. Both these Celtic nations could do more, especially if they cooperate with and support one another as much as possible, sharing resources, and both making themselves more self-sufficient in critical components of human needs, such as food, building materials for housing, hotels, schools, factories, etc., transportation and medical equipment and services.
Even for the most northern lands, there is potential for multiple sources of energy today: wind, oil and gas, tides, heat pumps etc. More food can be grown year round to provide adequate nutrition without excessive imports. Both nations have abundant water. More could be done with green-houses for vegetables, berries, even dwarf citrus, and more varieties of trees as well as just more trees generally could be planted, as well as hemp for wood and paper. We were amazed to see how much land in Ireland has very little diversity in its agriculture, and little space devoted to home gardens. Scotland doesn’t have as much arable land as Ireland does and it is further north, but it is highly efficient in grain and livestock production with what it does have. Yet Scotland itself could do better with timber and some greenhouse agriculture as well. There is no reason that either nation should be importing as much food as either does. If the state of Minnesota’s major grocery chains could make money with greenhouses using excess warm water from power plants and produce tomatoes, lettuce, spinach, etc. for 8 months of the year supplemented by freezing or canning fresh local produce during the few months of its limited growing season, there is no reason why Ireland and Scotland cannot both as well. With all the dwarf and semi-dwarf fruit trees, even citrus, that have been hybridized for home and small gardens, there is no reason they can’t produce some of these fruits as well – they have something many North African countries don’t have – year round water supplies. If they are to do well with tourism, (another important industry), then they will want to become more self-sufficient in food, shelter and transportation for both residents and visitors.
Recently, we did our own research using census and immigration records and results of DNA tests, and found that, compared to estimates of just 10 or 20 years ago, a much larger percentage of the U.S. is 50% or more Scottish and/or Irish. It’s 160 million or so, not a ‘mere’ 35 or 40 million. The DNA is there, the awareness of the reality is growing, and people do like to travel to where they think they have roots. This is a huge potential for financial success for both Scotland and Ireland together, as most Americans have both Irish and Scottish ancestry.
Some small nations do very well with a combination of tourism and limited manufacturing, provided they can balance the expenses for the needs for residential and visiting population with its revenues. Some charge high hotel and meal tax rates to do this. Scotland and Ireland, share a huge, largely untapped, potential for revenue from tourism, particularly from the U.S. In just the last rew years, DNA tests and other mediums have developed, and so people are much more aware of their real Scottish and Irish heritage. However, the majority of these 160 million or so U.S. citizens of Celtic descent who might travel, are not all rich as the oil princes of Saudi Arabia and although they are a bit more budget minded, are a huge potential in sheer numbers of travelers.
If both are independent, both are members of the EU, and they are financially cooperative with one another as well, such as having a monetary system tied to one another, more tours could be arranged that cover both countries together. If Scotland follows Ireland’s lead and adopts the Euro, it too would also have a strong financial system. If the two countries’ systems and policies are coordinated, and the Euro is equal in value in both, they strengthen one another, because now they become a two country financial bloc. They can become as alike as North and South New Zealand, or closer than the U.S. and Canada, long considered financially/economically close where manufacturing, trade and travel moves freely between the two.
The UK has its needs also, and one, very big, concern over the centuries in its dealings with both these Celtic nations, has been its national security. It was hard enough for the UK to let Ireland go, after several times in the 16th and 17th centuries Irish leadership made alliances with France and Spain, for assistance and even offered to let Spain rule, when those powers were inimical to England. Scotland shares an island with England. if it’s agreeable to the EU under these circumstances, Scotland can become a Commonwealth country, like Australia, promising not to make war on the UK, vaguely acknowledging the Crown, and allowing relatively free travel to and from the UK, but in all other respects run its own financial, taxation, trade and foreign policies. This can can work well between Ireland and Scotland, similarly to the relations between Canada and the U.S., where Canada is a Commonwealth country and the U.S. is not.
Ireland and Scotland are only a short distance apart, as little as 12 miles at one point. That’s just about the same distance as between San Mateo and Hayward across the San Francisco Bay. The San Mateo bridge connects them, despite the fact that the two cities are on two separate, active earthquake faults. A real, physical, rail and highway bridge would develop the economic relationship between Scotland and Ireland uniting their common interests and goals, and two such plans are extant. The Scots and Irish could build their bridge together and call it the Dal Riata Bridge.
Editorial: Celtic American Heritage and Collaboration
Our community is made up of MIXED Irish, Scots-Irish and/or Scottish ethnicities
By Cecilia Fábos-Becker
As measured directly by over 4 million DNA tests of Americans, (our own included), and depicted in the Venn diagram at right, the number of Americans who have greater than one-third Irish, Scots-Irish and/or Scottish ancestry is now about 50% of the U.S. population. This means that, as of the 2010 census total of 320 million total US population, about 150 million Americans have at least 1/3 of their tracable DNA originating in Ireland and/or Scotland. Additionally, the majority of these 150 million are a MIX of Irish and Scottish. Despite a growing number of Americans with Hispanic ancestry, the population of the U.S. is still substantially Scots, Irish and Scots-Irish in ethnic origin. This mixing will continue, with Hispanic DNA slowly being added to the mix. For examples, one need look no further than the ancestry of the parents and grandparents of San Jose’s own city councilpersons!
In the past, errors have been common in calculating numbers of Scottish Americans, Irish Americans, etc. by Scottish and Irish governments, and Americans themselves, trying to determine numbers of Irish OR Scots over 350 years of emigration to the U.S. as well as intermarriage before and after emigration. Since arrival in the U.S., a large amount of intermarriage has been almost constant, starting typically with the children or grand-children of immigrants. In Ireland, intermarriage between Scots, Normans and “native” Irish has been going on to one degree or another, for about 700 years–even prior to emigration.
First, for 1500 years, religion didn’t matter. It only really mattered for 300 years. In fact, all three groups were Catholic until the reign of the Tudors in England and subsequent, gradual Protestant conquests forced change of religion upon all parts of Ireland, and Scotland. Religion, until the Tudors, was originally no bar to intermarriage because everyone adhered to the same religion.
After Henry VIII, choice of religion could make it hard to survive, much less prosper. Particularly after repressive measures following the Catholic Irish rebellion of 1641, and after 1707, when the Penal laws imposed by England on Ireland, persons who chose to become or remain Catholic could not own land, own a business, hold political office or even vote and intermarriage between Catholics and Protestants was also forbidden. However, many Catholic Norman Irish and native Irish families urged the oldest and biggest land-owning sons in the family to change their religion, at least publicly, to retain land and to have some political power, and many actually did. At that point, as Protestants, they could intermarry with Scots Irish and Anglo-Irish who were Protestants and did. After 1867, the laws eased again, Catholics increased in numbers, after being diminished after 1707, and more intermarriage occurred.
Last, in both the UK emigration records (such as existed and not many) prior to 1831 and the U.S. immigration records to 1922, there was NO distinction made in records of the emigration from Ireland and immigration into the U.S. by religion, nor the cultural identity of the emigrants/immigrants. They were ALL listed as simply “Irish”, whether Protestant or Catholic, Scots in Ulster, Anglo or Norman-Irish or Native Irish. All were Irish. Over time, particularly since the 1870’s when the U.S. celebrated its centennial as a nation and first began thinking of cultural heritage and compiling or making up family histories, this is how many Americans began to think of themselves in their cultural heritage/identity. All they knew by the 1870’s was where the emigrant ancestor got on the ship–Ireland, for most. Other than the immigration or importation/naturalization records, if there was a sense of Scottish identity, it came from surnames with Mc or Mac in them, compared with O’. Ulster being heavily Scots-Presbyterian, once upon a time, was long forgotten. Even by 1876, religion was getting to be less a consideration in sense of historic identity. This continues to this day, and DNA tests are now surprising a lot of people who thought of themselves as purely “Irish,” and forgot about difficult periods in Scotland, Ireland, and the U.S., regarding religion.
James Leyburn’s 1962 History of the Scots-Irish being a good example, it used to be thought that once the Scots, and Scots-Irish crossed the Appalachians they intermarried so much with English descendants and German immigrant descendants that the DNA and culture became very dispersed and these Americans lost all sense of identity. However, our new DNA tests are showing otherwise–that they mostly married whatever they thought of as “their own kind“, and well past the famous 1960’s song in West Side Story where Anita is admonishing Maria to “stick to your own kind, marry your own kind.”
The long popularity of what is called “old-time music” in Ireland and Scotland, played and danced to all over America with many pieces little changed since their origins on the other side of the Atlantic ocean, also contradicts this idea. Over time in the U.S., as religious identity became less important, the places one left and the older shared history became more important as identifying kind. It became ok for Presbyterian and later Baptist and Methodist Scots and Scots Irish to begin marrying Catholic Irish, especially when private schools were increasingly seen as better schools for education to get into college and well paid careers and the Catholic schools were outnumbering all the other church schools put together and providing a well-rounded education to get into college, not just a theology based education to become a preacher. By the 1920’s, with Catholic politicians becoming legislators and state governors and more, all of this intermarriage and genetic integration only accelerated.
The result is, we now have an increasingly intermarried population of Scots, Irish and Scots-Irish, for nearly a full 100 years, four generations. It is impossible to state, using simply emigration, immigration and census records, how many Americans are purely Irish or purely Scots, because the vast majority of Scots/Irish/Scots-Irish Americans are not purely either one – they are a mixture of both. With only a 13 mile gap across the Irish Sea, a distance that we bridged in the San Francisco Bay area between San Mateo and Hayward at least 80 years ago, the U.S. has returned to what was the reality for Scotland and Ireland, together, for 1500 years prior to that unfortunate interlude when religious intolerance dominated.
For the 150 years since the dark age of intolerance, religious preference has gradually become less of an issue for the Scots and Irish themselves, especially in the U.S., where religious tolerance was practiced, and economic discrimination on the basis of religion was banned starting in some American colonies in the late 1600’s. Americans were determined not to bring the hatreds and conflcts from the old world to the new. In 1787, we made that idea of religious tolerance and equality part of our Constitution. Religion can be part of culture and history, but it is not the sole or most important element of culture, especially not a historic culture that is more than 2 millenia old, and Religion is certainly not in our DNA.
This newsletter is read widely by both musicians and artists who want and need an audience, and members and supporters of Scottish and Irish societies and clans, all of whom want attendance at their events, financial support for their bands, organizations, scholarships, etc., and membership for organizations (and clans). Yet we are all here together, now, in a U.S. where the recent immigrants purely from one partly-religiously-identified nation or another is a tiny, tiny, tiny minority. The number of immigrants and first generation Americans who are purely either Scots, or Irish is less than one-tenth of one percent of the entire U.S. population–nationwide. Our present shared need for audiences, supporters and members, and your future, here, in the U.S. must rely upon the 150 million or more Americans whose DNA is 36-50% identical with the recent immigrants, who are the product of 350 years of immigration from Scotland, Ireland and Scots-Irish Ulster and intermarriage, and who, for various reasons, may indeed have lost their identity and who are also more than fed up with conflicts involving religion–and in fact mostly FLED those conflicts.
Think of it this way: How are you going to reach out to the 150 million MIXED heritage people all around you, who should be your supporters? How are you going to help these 150 million persons, become more aware of their own MIXED Scottish and Irish heritage, and support you, without you trying to constantly ask them to choose one over the other, as if they were children of a nasty divorce with the fighting still ongoing? How are you going to help “build the bridges between the Scots, the Irish and Ulster, and among them and their U.S. cousins, that the current modern leaders of all three are now asking to be built?
We have some ideas on that, but we’d like to hear/read from others, those who especially want audiences and supporters, in the U.S., about their ideas for outreach, building support for all the bands and organizations and “building bridges, not walls” among Celtic descendants, here in the U.S., and between the Celtic descendants in the U.S. and their cousins east of the Atlantic Ocean. Email us at email@example.com.
Editorial: Celtic and U.S. Rebellions
The Work is Not Yet Done
By Celia Fabos-Becker and Tony Becker
Last month, on Thursday, November 17th, 2016 AmeriCeltic.net and San Jose-Dublin Sister Cities Program redressed an omission in the March commemorations of the 1916 Easter Rising in Ireland that ultimately led to Irish Independence. San Jose Irish history buffs visited the grave of Michael McDonnell, an Irish revolutionary who fought with Pearse and Collins that Easter in 1916, served under Collins during the terrible struggles of the Irish Civil War 1919-1921, came to San Jose, California and lived the rest of his life here in the South Bay Area.
In Autumn of 2015, President Michael Higgins of Ireland spoke at San Jose City Hall and, referring to the events of 1916 – 1922 in his speech, centered his remarks on the theme: “The work is not yet done.”
Besides rebelling against rule by England, there are two aspects that the American Revolution that began in 1774-5*, the Scottish rebellions of 1715 and 1745, and the Irish Revolution of 1916 – 1922 all shared. Yes, Ireland, Scotland and the American Colonies wanted independence to assert their separate national identities and to have and run their own governments, but this itself was entwined with a second purpose: We all wanted to drive our own futures, to control our own economic affairs and to maximize the prosperity of our own peoples. In fact, the Irish named their revolutionary movement Sinn Féin , “We Ourselves”, in the Irish language.
Americans, mostly Scots, Scots-Irish and Irish, all battled British elites, and their trade policies, particularly in manufacturing.
The British government, who ruled over all of Ireland, Scotland and what is now the U.S. , largely closed us off to trade both ways. The British Parliament kept our markets and manufacturing extremely limited, leaving us to export largely raw materials and semi-finished commodities at low prices while we were to required to import finished goods at high prices from English merchants. Not only could we not sell freely, we could not buy freely. Using their overwhelming force of arms, England, particularly the English owners of manufacturing companies, monopolized our trade, tightly controlling who could buy our goods and also who could sell goods to us.
The leaders of all three nationalities, Irish, Scottish and American, saw that external control hurt the prosperity of our peoples and limited their growth. These policies treated all of us as second class or lower citizens, existing only to serve external masters.
Today, there are too many corporate leaders in all our nations who are generally perceived as, and often consider themselves, elite globalists. These elites generally show no regard for workers of any nation. Through donations and other means many have forged alliances with entrenched politicians and political party elites who have forgotten their obligation to care for the people who elected them and trusted them with their economic well-being.
In the past year, we have seen the disgruntled, excluded voters of England itself vote narrowly for Brexit, which would, in turn, limit their subject peoples’ trade and development and in effect, return to the worst days of economic dependence. Scottish first minister Nicola Sturgeon, who also fought for the recent Scottish independence referendum, as well as Northern Ireland’s First Minister Arlene Foster and Deputy First Minister Martin McGuinness stand together against allowing their two countries to suffer such externally imposed economic hardships, and made statements similar to Irish President Higgins “the work is not yet done“.
This latest, terrible election in the U.S., was a primal scream of rage from the forgotten non-elites. Hillary Clinton lost as much through her too obvious political donations from the wealthy and the rigging of the Democratic Primary by her party elite friends, whom she did nothing to dissuade, as from her own personal faults, and those of her husband.
Bill Clinton was seen as potentially too influential. He had enacted, rather than torn up, NAFTA, and then signed the repeal of the Glass Steagall Act, which had kept Investment Banks out of Consumer banking. Both of these greatly harmed the economy of the nation and the lives, well-being and security of millions of ordinary Americans.
Donald Trump was one of these significant donors to the Clintons for many years, and others of their ilk, for decades, and also socialized with them to gain influence. Whether Trump will be any different is yet to be seen. However, there is one possibly promising sign. Trump’s apparent Secretary of Commerce nominee; Wilbur Louis Ross Jr.
Wilbur Ross is a person of Scots and Irish descent (his father is from a Ross family that has long lived in New Jersey and his mother is an O’Neill) and was among those to first suggest to Trump that “much of America is disgruntled because the economy has left middle class workers behind”. He has a history of taking the bits and pieces of broken companies left by the mismanagement by greedy, selfish, executives and directors and turning them into more viable entities, four of which he kept himself to run and develop.
It is very interesting to note that a certain George Ross, an ancestral cousin to the New Jersey Ross’s, was among the Signers of the American Declaration of Independence.
* The October 10, 1774 Battle of Point Pleasant, in what is now West Virginia, preceeded the April 19, 1775 skirmishes at Concord and Lexington, Massachusetts by 7 months. After this Battle, victorious Virginia militias forced then Virginia governor Lord Dunmore to flee the Virginia colony, effectively ending British Rule in Virginia. The fight was instigated by the colonists anger at then Prime Minister of Britain, Lord North and his policies, carried out by Lord Dunmore, attempting to bring the American colonies under tighter control in all ways, but ultimately enriching English elites.
Donagh Mc Keown
Stay Positive and Focus on Your Circle
by Donagh Mc Keown
Published July 15th, 2016
“The world is heading to hell in a handcart” Every other posting on social media would lead you to think it was going that way. Postings linking to videos of a man’s death, opinion postings on mass shootings in a Texas city, doom and gloom around every corner. Analysis of past wars (Chilcott) email destruction, and much much more. As human beings with compassion and consideration for our fellow humans, we are easily sucked into expressing those opinions, multiplying the negative energy and enmity aroused by such sharing.
I think once, twice, nay twenty times before saying anything about such incidents. Of course, as a caring human being, I wish well for my fellow man and woman. I am, however, careful not to act as a catalyst to increase anxiety or pain, particularly by sharing video of horrific events. The need to see someone’s final moment of life or to share in someone else’s nightmare is one I most definitely can live without.
Respect the dignity of a life lost, and of those involved in the activity that caused it. To watch it may be a personal choice. I leave that up to you. I believe it degrades me as a human being to watch it. I also know, from bitter experience and mental health circumstances, that it affects my long and short term sense of wellbeing. To me it serves no purpose other than demean, desensitize and demoralize the human spirit. The act itself is no less horrific. I know that reporting of such instances is necessary, so that we are aware. A free press is vitally important. I believe that it should not be so invasive and graphic.
On a second point, let’s not get caught up in the vehicle of sensationalism and scaremongering that is mass media. Yes, atrocities are happening in this world, some closer to us than to others. Let us just consider how good things are for us in the immediate center of our lives. Despite shootings, from whatever sources they come from, most of us are living in a free from violence, healthy environment. We are able to walk our streets, share a coffee and a smile with our neighbour. Yes, there are many in our wider society who don’t have just the same sense of freedom. I don’t ask anyone to forget that either. I just ask that we start to realize much of what we have to be grateful for in our immediate circle. This attitude of gratitude keeps me grounded, rather than falling into a state of melancholy or fear. It won’t immediately solve the problems of those more closely linked to violence and confrontation. Neither will, may I suggest, the sharing of graphic pictures of violence. Be aware and be vigilant, for sure. My choice is not to get caught up in the vitriol of violence, the sharing of such acts, for whatever purpose. Maybe it’s because I’m a hippy, whose just moved to his spiritual home in San Francisco. I don’t think so. I was a supporter of non violence all of my life, in a society where it was take one side or the other.
Smile at the next face you meet, say hello to all who cross your path. Build trust in your own circle. It’s the only place you have any real influence in. Use it wisely.
Message from Philip Grant
Consul General of Ireland to the Western United States
Published June 24th, 2016
Ireland advocated that the European Union is better with the United Kingdom as a full-member and that the United Kingdom is stronger inside the European Union.
Regrettably this was not the outcome of the vote – but the people spoke and we fully respect their decision.
There will be no immediate change to the free flow of people, goods and services between our islands.
Ireland is fully prepared to meet the many challenges that will arise. The Irish Government has published a summary of the key actions it will now take to address the issues arising from the UK’s decision to leave the European Union, available at this link: http://www.merrionstreet.ie/en/News-Room/Releases/Government_Brexit_Contingency_Plans_announced.html.
These will be difficult challenges. The decision by the United Kingdom raises many concerns for Ireland and for our communities around the globe, especially in Britain. The answers to many of these issues are likely to be complex. Examples of some of these and their implications have been detailed by the Irish Government at http://www.merrionstreet.ie/en/EU-UK/FAQs/. Many are relevant to the Irish-born community in the US and Americans of Irish heritage especially to ensure that stability and progress in Northern Ireland is maintained.
Our primary objective going forward must be to protect and advance our interests and also those of the people of Northern Ireland and the special set of relationships that connect the people of Ireland and the people of Great Britain.
Ireland will remain a member of the European Union and of the Eurozone. That is in our national interest. After more than 40 years of membership, we have built up strong bonds of partnership with all the other member states, and with the European institutions, that will continue to serve us well. It’s important to remember the enormous achievements of the Union. For all its flaws, the EU remains the best structure for advancing prosperity, promoting peace and confronting the many and complex problems of today’s globalized world.
There will be a discussion of the next steps at the meeting of the European Council next week. The Taoiseach will set out our position and ensure that our national interests are respected as we prepare to enter the next phase of negotiations. These negotiations will not commence for some months yet and will take a considerable amount of time to complete. Until that time the United Kingdom remains a member of the European Union and will continue to be so until those negotiations have concluded.
While Ireland’s future lies within the European Union, we will work to maintain our excellent bilateral relationship with the UK and continue to work closely with the UK Government and the Northern Ireland Executive as co-guarantors of the peace process.
We welcome the backing of the US Government as expressed by President Obama and especially Vice President Biden, who has been visiting Ireland this week. We are especially grateful to have support and goodwill of our community and friends here in the United States. These bonds of kinship will be of great as
sistance in helping to meet the difficult challenges ahead.
Editorial: The Future Possibilities for Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland
by Anthony Becker and Cecilia Fabos-Becker
Published June 26th, 2016
Last Thursday in the UK “Brexit” referendum, 62% of Scottish voters voted to remain in the EU. Since the majority of the UK, primarily those in England and Wales voted to leave the EU, the only way Scotland can maintain its membership in the EU two years from now will be as an Independent nation. Although the result of the last Scottish Independence Referendum, was, narrowly, to remain in the UK, that vote was contingent upon Scotland retaining EU membership. It seems clear that there will be another referendum, either later this year or next, and that is where the Government of Scotland is leading the Scottish nation.
57.5% of Northern Ireland’s voters also voted to remain in the EU in the UK “Brexit” referendum. If ‘Norn Iron’ wants to remain in the EU, it has two choices. It can either join the Republic of Ireland, (Eire), as they are a full member of the EU, or it can join Scotland, which, like Northern Ireland, is currently a member of the UK and in two years must leave to maintain its EU membership.
Independent Celtic Nations
One way or another, it seems very likely that there may be two newly independent Celtic nations. The remaining question is; How shall they be governed and what should their relationships with one another be? We suggest that the answer should be to emphasize and recognize what these Celtic nations have in common, form a working Celtic alliance, and work as closely together as possible in these areas.
Only larger nations and blocs have the most influence in the EU and in world trade agreements. Only larger nations or blocs have the best ability to maintain themselves in varied circumstances.
If it is to be ensured of being regarded as a completely independent nation for EU status, Scotland cannot be a ‘dominion’ of The Crown. Scots cannot to sing “God Save the Queen”, acknowledging fealty to the UK monarch of a non-member nation, and be credible as a member of the EU. Nor should Scotland restore any monarchy. It should build on the more democratic principles, established by its history of clans and its independent Presbyterian Church centuries ago. Scotland should elect its own Leaders, etc., and if it decides upon a two-house Parliament, make the upper house either Scottish notable, honored citizens (clan chiefs!) or a form of Senate representing larger districts than those of the House or Commons.
It’s time to fulfill the empty promises of "one man-one vote, representation" of too many UK prime ministers, monarchs and political party leaders in England, and make it happen in a free and independent Scotland and all of Ireland, including Northern Ireland. End ethnically based classism. Both these newly independent Celtic nations must do something that remains undone in the UK to this day: guarantee all citizens equal enfranchisement by the principal of one man, one vote. All districts of the house or houses based on population must be the same size and their representatives represent the same number of legal residents and voting citizens.
Taxation without representation was a primary reason for revolution among the Scottish/Scots-Irish/Irish-descended Americans and has to this day been an issue and very real grievance for many parts of the UK. Residents pay taxes and need services also. They should have representation even without yet having a right to vote as full citizens. Children can earn or inherit income and pay taxes, and certainly need services and we do not deny them, so neither should legal residents be denied.
The 1st Amendment of the U.S. Constitution was written and adopted by the descendants of Scots, Scots-Irish and Irish emigrants, both Protestant and Catholic who had become more than fed up with religious strife in these very countries. Beginning 400 years ago, religious intolerance, often tied to one monarch or another, tore their countries apart and caused the terrible deaths of millions. This horror continued for more than two centuries! Recognizing that, only 20 years ago, related intolerance was rampant on the Irish island, and is still tearing the U.S. apart where some religious zealots would still have human and civil rights limited or denied and laws otherwise made on the basis of religious beliefs, it is imperative that all three nations guarantee complete freedom of religion with NO discrimination, nor denial of equal civil or economic rights based on religion. Religion should never again be allowed to be a part of state government. We suggest a Constitution in a united Ireland and independent Scotland, rigorously enforced, guaranteeing freedom of religion and stating that the government shall neither prohibit a religion, nor make it part of government laws and rules.
We suggest adding a couple of more things to both Constitutions to avoid oligarchies, filled with non-citizens, gaining control over citizens, (as the U.S. has done): declare that corporations are not ‘persons’, shall have no rights to make political donations, and if they state themselves to be “global,” have no private lobbying rights, and all records of their meetings with government officials shall be made public. The same must be true for any international churches or unions. Only individual, adult, human beings who are citizens should have the right to make political donations. Also, to avoid the idiotic partisan gridlock that has increasingly rendered the U.S. Congress impotent and threatens to cause yet another Civil War in the U.S., when our refusal to enforce keeping religion out of government doesn’t, require that once a person is elected or appointed to any public office, in which he or she must serve all citizens and legal residents equally, they must resign any political party membership.
Celtic Co-operation Blocs
A strong, united front when dealing with the EU, any large Asian nation, and/or the U.S. is also imperative. Absolute power corrupts absolutely and the bigger and more powerful a nation, or pact of nations, the more likely smaller ones will be exploited and/or abused. It can be much worse than merely unfair trade deals. A new independent Scotland should form a tight alliance with all of Ireland and they must agree to support, assist and defend one another, and to not war on the remaining UK. In the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries the opposite was done, and this lack of fair dealing directly led to devastating multi-area conflicts. Learn from and don’t repeat this part of the past. Additionally, the minimum wage, quantities and amounts of services must be very nearly the same for Scotland and Ireland and use the Euro monetary unit, as close as it is to the Canadian and U.S. dollars. Environmental standards must be nearly the same and equally well enforced, and likewise education standards.
These newly Independent nations must avoid being treated as the Czechs, Hungarians and Poles were just after World War I. This advice proceeds from the lessons of hard experiences, and ultimately successes, of the nations of the Visegrad Group. These small, weak, divided nations of Central and East Europe found only by doing these things could they end the constant efforts of large nations of Western Europe, and Russia to divide and conquer/exploit them. In the first years after World War I, after their borders were seriously re-arranged to suit these same larger powers, those larger powers deliberately sowed division and competition for the advantage of the larger powers. The larger powers had the weak, divided nations of Central and East Europe constantly fighting for the bottom in wages, standards etc. just to have any investment money, loans, jobs and industries, and at the same time competing to pay the highest prices for the most and best imported manufactured goods for their own peoples from these larger nations who jealously guarded and promoted their own manufacturing industries. The Germans, French and the UK, as well as the Russians and Italians haven’t changed the ‘dark side’ of human nature of their leadership that much in only one century, and would be only too happy to take unfair advantage of the several small Celtic nations, as they have other small European nations.
There is strength in numbers, and we suggest a unity of some sort, such as a Celtic-Atlantic Trade Association (CATA) Pact, or to honor their shared history, they could call it the Dalriada Pact. Negotiate with Europe and the U.S. on the strength of 12 million people in tight agreement with, and who mutually support one another, not several small competing smaller nations of only 6 million people each. It was by sticking together as a pact of over 25 million people in the three nations of Visegrad Group as they entered the EU together under the same terms and benefits, and likewise NATO. (Editor’s note: Cecilia was involved in these negotiations).
We suggest that both Scotland and Ireland also become members of NATO, and as nearest neighbors, cooperate with one another as well as the other NATO members. Neither of these Celtic nations would like to contend with Russians on the issues of who owns or has exclusive rights to what in the Arctic, on your own, any more than, after a series of events in the 19th and 20th century, any of the Visegrad Group of nations wanted to deal with Russia on their own ever again. Polar bears don’t change their colors any more than leopards change their spots.
The Celtic countries should learn from their histories, as well as the mistakes and successes of their cousins in North America, Australia and New Zealand to build their great futures. Who knows–maybe they will someday inspire the U.S.A. to regain it’s sanity and unity!
Editorial: Antecedents of the American Revolution
Published June 17th, 2016
by Tony Becker and Cecilia Fábos-Becker
New Primary Sources on www.AmeriCeltic.net
Recently, we’ve seen ugly and violent acts of religious extremists in Africa, West Asia, Europe and now here in the U.S. Politicians here in the U.S. as well as Europe are now clamoring to put all the adherents of some religions or some sects on terrorist watch lists, or make them wear identifying badges to show what they are at a glance, or to ban them from entering the U.S., and other extreme acts of government.
On the scale of human history, the events of 1689-90 are recent. Human nature does not change across even millennia, and we are in danger of resurrecting a past that most of our ancestors fled when they came to this nation. For proof, just take a good look at the related documents and sources we found in the last few months.
As AmeriCeltic researches family history we look for primary source documents with the names of heads of families, and precisely where in Ireland they lived. Ongoing research has just made available another set of primary source reference documents, the Intro, Extracts of Walter Harris 1749 Book & List of Attainted Protestants and Catholics in Ireland. The ‘Act of Attainder‘ was created by an extremist Parliament hastily appointed by the fanatic, the Earl of Tyrconnell, who had been given the task by the deposed King James II. This item will be of interest to family history researchers of Scots-Irish, Anglo-Irish and Irish families, students of the antecedents of the American Revolution.
In view of these current events, it is also timely for readers of this newsletter.
When we discuss 17th Century Irish history, we often hear only of the atrocities of the fanatical Protestant Cromwell and his ilk, but with their “Act of Attainder” the transient Parliament of 1689 dispossessed and imprisoned tens of thousands of people, both Protestants, and Catholics. They revoked prior Acts accepted by the majority of Irish who held power in Ireland, made under the preceding kings who were the parents and siblings of James II. It undid 150 years of history that began with rebellions to eject both English and Norman Anglo-Irish, who were both Protestant and Catholic, but seen as foreign invaders and occupiers, and owing allegiance to a now Protestant English crown. Many of these attained families, ordered to be either killed or ejected from Ireland, had been there since the 12th century!
It has often been said that ‘those who do not remember history are condemned to repeat it.’ When presented with the Act of Attainder by these fanatic Catholics in Ireland, James read it found it exceeded even his own wishes. James II himself responded, ‘do you really want to engage in 1641 all over again?‘ 1641 was the year in which some Irish Catholic lords had led a rebellion against persons who were either non-Irish and/or non-Catholic, that went out of control and slaughtered several tens of thousands of Protestants, including Scots, as well as some Catholics who were of mixed heritage, both of whom the leaders had not wanted harmed. 1641 had led to Protestant reprisals, civil war, and then Cromwell who, under the Authority of the English parliament which had executed James’ father, King Charles I, engaged in the complete devastation of nearly 2/3 of Ireland–Protestant and Catholic lands and families alike. Again, with the blessing of Parliament, Cromwell enacted the first harsh penalties toward Catholics as the general instigators of all that followed, which were only partly rescinded by Charles II.
Today’s Irish politicians often acknowledge the value of Parlimentary government introduced by the English. In contrast, these rebel 16th and 17th Century Irish earls and lords had no accountability to anyone. They lived and acted by no Parliament, not even the minimal ones of England and Scotland, but only by their own interpretation of religion, and were willing to form military alliances with fanatical Catholic governments, such as Inquisition era Spain, which was literally ruled by persons whom their own peers in Europe called MAD.
At least twice, these unaccountable, rebellious earls, (one of whom was of Norman descent and whose direct ancestor owed feudal allegiance to Henry II of England), invited the king of Spain to rule Ireland! They did this without consulting parts of their own families, much less any ordinary people of Ireland. To use modern parlance, England, ‘freaked out’, as England had just endured the horrendous English Civil War and massacres of Protestants under “Bloody Mary,” and just prior, had fought off the Spanish Armada.
The punishments for these rebellions were harsh, but actually less so than the previous 150 years of religious wars throughout Europe over which sect of Christianity was to be the official state religion of various independent, duchies, principalities, kingdoms and empires. The historical fact is that all the unaccountable, autocratic kings, and lords wanted to make their chosen religion, whatever sect of Christianity that was, the religion of entire countries and use that religion to bolster their repressive governance, including governing all thought, spoken and written expression, and behavior, right down to how people were to dress, speak to one another and to government officials, what rights they had in particular social and governmental orders, how churches were to be decorated or not, how Bibles were to be written and interpreted and much more.
Suffice to say, by the late 17th Century, in the minds of both Irish Protestants and Catholics it was time to ‘move on’ and over the next two centuries more than a third of all Catholics and Protestants in Ireland emigrated abroad, mostly to what became the United States.
We seem to be sliding toward revisiting those horrendous experiences upon one another in our own lives, and unluckily, the option to ‘move on’ as our Celtic ancestors did, no longer exists. Luckily, the children of our mass-homicidal ancestors, and those who were attempting to flee from them, had the sense to enact a Constitution that governed an elected Congress and an amendment that separated Church and State. It’s time to remember that, and why they did so. Since independence, even Ireland itself has separated Church and State and more recently has increased the distance.
We hope it will be useful then to review some of the very experiences of our own Protestant and Catholic ancestors at a time when religion was combined with state and each side was willing to deny rights, even massacre the other.
Women’s Civil Rights in Celtic Societies
Published June, 2015
by Cecilia Fábos-Becker
By blood we are mostly a Celtic nation, with a long, rich history of Celtic culture in attitude and law regarding human and civil rights. If more people knew what that history was, they’d be appalled at the attitudes, behaviors, deals and stated goals of most of candidates for high elected office in the U.S., particularly as they regard women, the elderly, the truly skilled and educated, and living children. This article reviews the status and rights of Celtic women, a somewhat sensitive subject, but real Celts will appreciate it as part of their cultural heritage.’Bay Area author, Catherine Duggan, recently published a book, The Lost Laws of Ireland (2013, Glasnevin Publishing, Dublin, Ireland).
This book reveals the status, rights and obligations of Celtic women as described in Brehon and other pre-Roman and pre-English law. There are additional references to pre-Roman and pre-English laws in a number of Scottish history books and commentaries by the Romans and English about the Scots, particularly between the 3rd and 10th centuries.’The difference in status of women is startling. Compared to Brehon law and the Christian Church of Saint Patrick, Aidan and Columba, the Romanized Christian Church and related laws and cultures considered women mere property. It did not matter what was the status of their parents, what their parents contributed to the marriage, nor their education and skills. They could not own property, could not own labor, livestock, nor pass on anything to their children by choice. This was very different in Celtic societies.’Under Brehon law, women were ordered to be protected by their fathers, husbands and sons. If injured or killed they had an ‘honor price’ based on rank at birth and their own education, skills and integrity. If a woman married a man of equal rank, she continued to own property in her own right after marriage, and could buy and sell property, have separate as well as common earnings. According to her will, upon a woman’s death she could could dispose of property inherited from her own family back to her own family under the care of the ranking male. Property acquired in a woman’s own right, before or after marriage, could be disposed of by her choice and will to whichever sons and daughters she preferred. Primogeniture among males was not the sole rule of inheritance.
Marriage was governed by contract sections of law and also laws against extreme violence. Women could divorce men for violations of the marriage contracts, infidelity, slander and abuse, especially if any physical abuse left a blemish. Polygamy was also legal but the second wife had only half the status and honor price of the first, though her sons might be considered equal for a father’s inheritance, since a father did not have to give everything to his first born son. A man could divorce a wife for having an abortion or for smothering or otherwise killing a child.
Brehon law continued to operate in Ireland until the 1600’s and in Scotland a similar form of law continued until the beginning of the Stuart kings. In fact, according to Patterson’s History of Ayrshire, widows had property rights and other rights up to the time of the Act of Union and later, at least until 1745, and a woman could demand and obtain a divorce. When the Presbyterian Church was formed in the 16th century, councils of elders were quickly agreed upon by the church communities to be elected by both men and women and both men and women could be elders, and religious teachers up to a point.
Scotland was at one time a matriarchy. Its Pictish kingdom was often ruled by a Queen in her own right. Over time, males were crowned, but becoming a king was determined by the mother’s family, that is who your mother was, not the father’s family. Even the Stuart kings ultimately came to the Scottish throne on the basis of the marriage of a daughter of the preceding king who had no sons. Civil strife sometimes occurred because there was no guaranteed preference of birth order among daughters, and outside mercenaries or mediators could be and were brought in by one husband of a daughter or another. This is how the Plantagenet kings of England began making inroads into Scotland began outright invasions at times into both Scotland and Ireland. It was, ideally, a combination of the marriage of a daughter and the honor price–the worth–of her husband that determined the support for the kingship of one husband of a daughter over another. Outsiders were supposed to be left out of the decision. In both Ireland and Scotland, leaders of families or clans was a combination of heredity and election, and likewise kings. However, disagreements could and did lead to violent conflict so it often was a combination of force of arms, as well as wealth, intelligence, and the degree of non-violent popular support that led to a clan or family chief being decided or a king. This was both a strength and weakness of the nations. Enemies could and did profit during civil strife over leaders at the lower and higher levels, especially when someone whose ego outweighed his sense of community invited them into the fray.
Women were also accomplished queens and warriors in their own right in pre-Romanized society. In the 60 CE the Romans battled Boudica (Boadiccea), Queen in her own right of the British Iceni tribe who led an army of 100,000 against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire in the then Roman province of Britannia. In the 16th century, Queen Elizabeth contended and negotiated with Grania O’Malley, who ruled the provice of Connaught in Ireland, where the Brehon law of the native Celts still ruled.
By 1654, the English had finally completed the conquest of Ireland and their oppression began in earnest. These conquerors outlawed the ancient Brehon laws, imposed their English laws (see Penal Laws and Highland Clearances). Within a generation, Celts began emigrating to the North American colonies, and after serveral failed revolts, by 1750 over 1,000,000 Scottish and Irish emigrants had populated the American colonies, especially along the Appalachian Piedmont, where English law did not reach. Scottish and Irish famines of 1837 and 1847 added at least another 1,000,000 Scottish and Irish emigrants to America.
Though these more egalitarian laws and rights were in decline in Scotland and nearly wiped out in Ireland, the memory, and oral and written histories of what once was, continued for a time in the U.S.. The memory was refreshed by a huge new immigration of Scots and Irish who had continued to suffer under the English in the famines and Highland Clearances, and had kept the memory alive the stories of the old ways. In all these cases, the influence and greater control of the exclusively male, feudal, classist society of England was seen as a major cause of loss of rights of women, increased poverty of women and children, as Dickens and Austen described, and one more reason for emigration to America where a new society might be created and some treasured older values revived.
Unfortunagely, the lingering influence of the English usurping Brehon Law lasted for centuries. It wasn’t until the mid to late 19th century that American women finally regained most of the civil-rights that they had 400 to 800 years earlier in Ireland and Scotland.
The battle for womens and human rights continues today, as too many ignorant men still cling to Romanized and pre-modern English traditions. Some still regard as women as little more than “senseless property” and and try to impose these more restricting attitudes, as law, upon a mostly Celtic nation. Like the Romans, they all too willing to use brute force when persuasion by their eloquence fails to convince their victims, and we still have a long way to go to restore justice for the still too prevalent oppression. Real full equality of women, as once existed in pre-Roman times, may still depend upon women being willing to do battle for their equality and rights as Celtic warrior women of yore once were willing and able to do.